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«By Linah N. Ababneh _ Copyright ©Linah N. Ababneh 2006 A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Department of Geosciences In Partial ...»

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ANALYSIS OF RADIAL GROWTH PATTERNS OF STRIP-BARK AND WHOLEBARK BRISTLECONE PINE TREES IN THE WHITE MOUNTAINS OF

CALIFORNIA: IMPLICATIONS IN PALEOCLIMATOLOGY AND

ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE GREAT BASIN

By

Linah N. Ababneh

_____________________________________

Copyright ©Linah N. Ababneh 2006

A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the

Department of Geosciences In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

GRADUATE COLLEGE

As members of the Dissertation Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation prepared by Linah Ababneh entitled “Use and Analysis of radial growth patterns of strip-bark and whole-bark bristlecone pine trees in the White Mountains of California Implications in Paleoclimatology and Archaeology of the Great Basin” and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy ____________________________________________________Date: 7/7/2006 Jeffrey Dean ____________________________________________________Date: 7/7/2006 Barbara Mills ____________________________________________________Date: 7/7/2006 Malcolm Hughes ____________________________________________________Date: 7/7/2006 Wallace Woolfenden Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate’s submission of the final copies of the dissertation to the Graduate College.

I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.

___________________________________________________ Date: 11/16/2006 Dissertation Director: Jeffrey S. Dean

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder.

SIGNED: Linah N. Ababneh

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

My sincere thanks to Dr. Jeffrey S. Dean, chair of my dissertation committee, and my committee members Dr. Barbara J. Mills, Dr. Owen K. Davis, Dr. Malcolm K. Hughes, and Dr. Wallace B. Woolfenden for their continuous guidance and constructive comments during the process of data analysis and writing.

This work has been accomplished through the generous support of the University of California, San Diego and Davis, Sigma Xi, Mary DeDecker Grants, The University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, as well as the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research’s Agnese N. Haury Fellowship Fund and Bristlecone Pine Student Endowment.

My association with the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research and The Geosciences Department has enriched my experience in many ways. Sincere thanks to the staff and members of the business offices in both departments. I am grateful for the following people: Jim Burns and Venicia Parker for their field assistance; and to R. Warren for checking some of the dates and helping with crossdating.

Sincere genuine thanks to Wally Woolfenden for his help through this whole process of field work, data analysis, and dissertation writing.

My sincere thanks to John Smiley, staff, and personnel of the White Mountain Research Station for their support and patience while conducting my internship during the period of revising this dissertation. Special thanks to Tom Harlan, Dr. J. Mohler, Rachel Wilhite, Kathy Korbholz, Greg and Fran Lesier, and Loma & Jim Griffith.

For Dr. Elizabeth Harrison my true teaching mentor who guided me to look within myself and realize the true teacher within. My gratitude also extends to The University of Arizona Teaching Center faculty and staff for their welcoming attitude towards my research and teaching during the past few years.

Endless thanks to Nancy Lindsay from the Graduate College for her help; Prof. Randall Richardson, Geosciences Department and Anne Chase, Geosciences Department Graduate Coordinator for their continuous support.

I am in debt to all of my good friends who never hesitated about showing their support regardless of the situation, and the page would be full if I listed those people.

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ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………..…..9 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………..11 Tree-Ring Growth ……………………………………………………………………..11 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………...16 General Introduction…………………………………………………………………16 Effects of Climate …………………………………………………………………….20 Effects of Carbon Dioxide





Effect of Nutrients and Pollutants…………………………………………………...22 Archaeology, Tree-Ring Analysis, and Climate Variability……………………….25 Overview of the Research ……………………………………………………………28 CHAPTER TWO: PRESENT STUDY

Organization…………………………..……………………………………………...31 Dendrochronological Findings………………………………………………………31 Tree-ring and Climate Related Growth Findings…………….……………..……..32 Paleoclimate Model and Archaeology Findings...……………….………………....33 REFERENCES CITED…………………..……………………………………………36 APPENDIX I: Analysis of Radial Growth Patterns of Strip-Bark and Whole-Bark Bristlecone Pine Trees in the White Mountains of California……………………….42 ABSTRACT……………………………………………..………………………… …42 INTRODUCTION…………...…………………………………………………………43 Site Description and Climate……………………………….……………………….49

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METHODS……………………………………………………………………………..51 Field Sampling Design and Standard Dendrochronological Data Treatment…...51 Statistical Analysis for Detecting Differences between Strip and Whole-Bark Trees………………………………………………………………………………….53 RESULTS…………………………………………………………………….………..55 DISCUSSION………………………………………………………………………….69 CONCLUSIONS………………………………………………………………………73 REFERENCES CITED……………………………………………………………….75 APPENDIX II: The Effects of Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation on TreeRing Growth of Upper Elevation Strip-Bark and Whole-Bark Trees in the White Mountains, California…………...……………………………………………………79 ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………...…79 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………..…...80 Site description and General Climate Patterns……………………………..…..…83 METHODS ……………………………………………………………………………85 Field Sampling Design and Standard Dendrochronological Data Treatment…..85 Climate Data………………………………………………………………………....88 RESULTS………………………………………………………………………………90 Correlations with Local Climate Data ……………………………………………..92 DISCUSSION………………..…………………..………………………….………….95

–  –  –

Bias and Confounding……..……………..…………………………………………..95 Comparison with Other Studies………………………………………………….….96 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………….…...98 CITED REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………….99 APPENDIX III: Bristlecone Pine Paleoclimtic Model for Archaeological Patterns in the White Mountains of California Abstract………………………………………………………………………………..103

1. Introduction and Statement of the Problem……………………………………105

2. Overview of the Study Area…………………………………………………......108

2.1 The Modern Environment…………………………………………………..109

2.2. Environmental History……………………………………………………..110

2.3 Cultural History………………………………………………………….....113

3. Human Ecological Model …………………………………………………….….115

4. Climate Reconstruction……………………………………………………….….117

4.1 Dendroclimatic Reconstructions ……………………………………….…..117 4.1.1 Temperature Inference from the BCP Chronologies…………......117 4.1.2 Temperature Periodization…………………………………….....120 4.1.3 Precipitation Reconstruction……………………………………..121 4.1.4 Precipitation Periodization……………………………………….122 4.1.5. Periodization of Temperature and Precipitation………………...124

5. The Effective Environment………………………………………………………126

5.1 The Prehistoric Subsistence-Settlement Patterns……………………...…...128

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5.2 Human Culture and Alpine Occupation……………………………………130

6. Analysis of the Model Components and Results…………………….……..……..133

6.1 The Proposed Climate-Human Environment Model ………..……….…….139

7. Conclusions and Future Study Recommendations………………………..……143 References……………………………………………………………………………...145

–  –  –

Dendrochronology focuses on the relationship between a tree’s growth and its environment and thus investigates interdisciplinary questions related to archaeology, climate, ecology, and global climate change. In this study, I examine the growth of two forms of bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva): strip-bark and whole-bark trees from two subalpine adjacent sites: Patriarch Grove and Sheep Mountain in the White Mountains of California. Classical tree-ring width analysis is utilized to test a hypothesis related to a proposed effect of the strip-bark formation on trees’ utilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide. This effect has grown to be controversial because of the dual effect of temperature and carbon dioxide on trees’ growth. The proposed effect is hypothesized to have accelerated growth since 1850 that produced wider rings, and the relation of the latter topic to anthropogenic activities and climate change. An interdisciplinary approach is taken by answering a question that relates temperature inferences and precipitation reconstructions from the chronologies developed in the study and other chronologies to Native Americans' subsistence-settlement patterns, and alpine villages in the White Mountains. Strip-bark trees do exhibit an enhanced growth that varies between sites.



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