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«A Large Eddy Simulation Based Fluid-Structure Interaction Methodology with Application in Hydroelasticity Andreas Feymark Department of Shipping and ...»

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THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

A Large Eddy Simulation Based Fluid-Structure

Interaction Methodology with Application in

Hydroelasticity

Andreas Feymark

Department of Shipping and Marine Technology

Chalmers University of Technology

Gothenburg, Sweden

A Large Eddy Simulation Based Fluid-Structure Interaction Methodology with

Application in Hydroelasticity

Andreas Feymark

Gothenburg, 2013

ISBN: 978-91-7385-840-3

Copyright © Andreas Feymark, 2013 Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola Ny serie Nr 3521 ISSN: 0346-718X Department of Shipping and Marine Technology Division of Marine Design Chalmers University of Technology SE - 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden Telephone: +46 (0)31-7721000 Printed by Chalmers Reproservice Gothenburg, Sweden, 2013

– FELIX, QUI POTEST RERUM COGNOSCERE CAUSAS –

A Large Eddy Simulation Based Fluid-Structure Interaction Methodology with Application in Hydroelasticity Andreas Feymark Department of Shipping and Marine Technology Division of Marine Design Chalmers University of Technology Abstract The phenomenon of hydroelasticity is a subarea of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) and of major importance in many engineering applications related to hydrodynamics and naval architecture e.g. wave-induced vibrations, such as springing, whipping and slamming, propeller singing, composite propellers or turbines, acoustic signatures from naval vessels, highly loaded thin propeller blades, and cavitation erosion. Some of these phenomena can be assessed with reasonable reliability, but in cases where medium- to small-scale flow features are important the computational models need to be further developed to improve predictive capability and enable new conceptual designs.

The work presented in this thesis has this kind of development as objective and a method capable of providing hydroelasticity predictions based on LES is presented and validated. The problem is particularly challenging as the densities of the fluid and the structure are comparable and an implicit coupling is thus needed to ensure a stable solution procedure. Furthermore, LES is not well established in the FSI context and especially not within the area of hydroelasticity. High resolution of the computation is necessary and the algorithm needs to run efficiently on large parallel computer systems. Reliable results also include predicting the correct separation pattern, in general on smoothly curved geometries. To address this a validation of LES in terms of predicting the correct separation pattern was performed and presented here, including also the development and validation of a LES turbulence trip model.

The results presented can be divided into three parts, firstly the prediction and validation of open separation phenomena around a prolate spheroid, secondly the prediction and validation of the flow around an oscillating cylinder and thirdly the development of a fluid-structure interaction methodology for hydrodynamic applications and corresponding prediction and validation of the deformation of a flexible hydrofoil. The results all show a good agreement with experimental data, thus supporting the validity of the fluid-structure interaction methodology for hydroelastic applications presented within the scope of this thesis. Finally, the parallel performance of the implementation is analyzed through both weak and strong scaling and found to be satisfactory.

Keywords: naval architecture, large eddy simulation, forced oscillation, hydrodynamics, hydroelasticity, numerical simulation, subgrid modeling, fluidstructure interaction, trip model i ii Preface This thesis consists of an introduction and five papers. Please note that the author changed his surname from Karlsson to Feymark in January 2009.

Paper I Karlsson, A., Fureby, C., “LES of the Flow Past an Inclined 6:1 Prolate Spheroid,” 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, Florida, Jan. 5-8, AIAA 2009-1616, 2009.

Contributions: Contributed in the planning and writing of the paper, performed the LES, post-processing and analysis of results.

Paper II Feymark, A., Chapuis, M., Fureby, C., Liefvendahl, M., “Large Eddy Simulation of High Re Number Partially Separated Flow,” 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Nashville, Tennessee, Jan. 6-9, AIAA 2012-100, 2012.

Contributions: Contributed in the planning and writing of the paper, performed the LES of the prolate spheroid, development of the trip-model, post-processing and analysis of results.

Paper III Feymark, A., Alin, N., Bensow, R. E., Fureby, C., “Numerical Simulation of an Oscillating Cylinder using Large Eddy Simulation and Implicit Large Eddy Simulation,” Journal of Fluids Engineering, No. 3, Vol. 1342, pp. 031205, 2012.

Contributions: Contributed in the planning and writing of the paper, performed the LES, post-processing and analysis of results.

Paper IV Feymark, A., Alin, N., Bensow, R. E., Fureby, C., “Large-Eddy Simulation of an Oscillating Cylinder in a Steady Flow,” AIAA Journal, No. 4, Vol. 55, April, 2013.

Contributions Contributed in the planning and writing of the paper, performed the LES, post-processing and analysis of results.





Paper V Feymark, A., Cesur, A., Alin, N., Fureby, C., Revstedt, J., Bensow, R. E., “FluidStructure Interaction using Parallel Open Source Software with Application in Hydroelasticity,” In preparation for submission.

Contributions: Contributed in the planning and writing of the paper, performed the majority of the code development, performed the LES, post-processing and analysis of results.

iii iv Acknowledgement I would like to express my sincere thankfulness to my supervisors and mentors Rickard Bensow, for always taking his time and being a good listener, Christer Fureby, for his commitment and inspiring visions and Niklas Alin for always bringing joy and providing new perspectives. I would, furthermore, like to thank my colleagues at the department, especially Leslie who has, since my first day at Shipping and Marine Technology, been one of my best friends, and my colleagues at Lund University, Alper Cesur and Johan Revstedt. I would also like to thank my family, Kristin, Roger, Catrin, Jonas, Annelie, Malin, Evelina, Albin, Lova, Colin and Dylan for always being there for me, you are the best.

Financial support is provided by VINNOVA through Lighthouse maritime competence centre.

v vi

Table of Contents

1.

Background

2.

Thesis Objective and Scope

3.

The CFD-CSD Coupling Approach

4.

Validation of Numerical Predictions

5.

Summary

A.

Large Eddy Simulation of Separated Flow (PAPER I & II)

B.

Large Eddy Simulation of an Oscillating Cylinder (PAPER III & IV)

C.

A Large Eddy Simulation Based Fluid-Structure Interaction Methodology with Application in Hydroelasticity (PAPER V)

6.

Conclusions

7.

Outlook

References

1. Background Since the first ships saw the light of the day naval architects have been forced to take the impact of the strains and stresses induced by the sea into consideration. Although a complete model of the dynamic behavior of a ship would be of great interest and importance the evolution of naval architecture has, due to a strong dependency on the development of computational methods and resources, resulted in a division of the field into distinct subject areas.

The term hydroelasticity was first introduced by Heller and Abramson, [1], as the naval counterpart to aeroelasticity. As such, hydroelasticity generally falls under the subject of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI), describing the interaction between interconnected structural deflection and fluid flow. Moreover, there exist two distinct coupling approaches. The first one being the monolithic approach where the fluid and the solid systems of equations are solved simultaneously, including the boundary conditions, [2–4]. In the second one, the partitioned approach, a staggered approach is utilized, [5–7]. The monolithic approach is considered to be more stable and accurate however expensive in computational time while the partitioned approach gives more flexibility with the advantage of possible usage of already existing (feature rich) solvers. The possibility to use already existing also reduces the programming required compared with a monolithic approach. The partitioned schemes can also be subdivided into explicit and implicit coupling schemes. Explicit coupling schemes solve the fluid and solid equations without any sub-iteration, leading to inexact matching of the coupling conditions at the fluid-solid interface. Explicit coupling is generally favored in aeroelastic applications, [8], where the difference in density between solid and fluid is large. In contrast, implicit coupling schemes are often used when solid and fluid densities are comparable, such as in hydroelastic and biomedical applications.

Hydroelasticity is a broad area and of great importance in the analysis and prediction of, e.g. wave-induced vibrations, such as, springing, whipping and slamming, propeller singing, flexible propeller blades, signature levels from submarines, structural fatigue, wave induced movements and loads of marine structures, properties and sea loads on rapidly moving vessels and human comfort and fatigue. Springing as a nautical term refers to stationary vertical vibrations of the hull girder due to oscillating wave loads whereas whipping refers to transient hull girder vibrations due to impact, not necessarily only by waves. Both these phenomena may dominate the contribution to fatigue for some vessels but are today, due to their intrinsic complexity, disregarded in the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) rules, [9]. Slamming which is the impact of the hull bottom on the water surface, resulting in very high loads on the ship structures, is nevertheless considered in the IACS rules.

The ongoing development of computational software and resources suggests that it would, in the long term, be possible to analyze hydroelasticity phenomena using threedimensional non-linear theories based on traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers and corresponding structural mechanicals solvers within the field of Computation Solid Dynamics (CSD). That would mean access to detailed predictions that could, for example, facilitate the development of the simplified potential flow based methods frequently used today. For a comprehensive summary of the computational methods related to springing, whipping and slamming, see Chen et al, [10]. Although being important, predictions of these kinds of effects are not the aim of the FSI methodology presented within this thesis.

The phenomenon of propeller singing, ranging from a deep grunting sound trough to a high-pitched noise, may on a particular design be more or less unpredictable within the bounds of the present analysis capabilities, [11]. Singing is believed to be the cause of vortex shedding mechanism in the turbulent and separated part of the boundary layer on the blade surface, [11]. The sensitivity to small design changes and the complexity of the problem might be understood realizing that two propellers of the same design can be manufactured so that one propeller will sing whilst the other will not. The practical solution of the problem is to introduce a chamfer to the trailing edge of the blade, with the purpose to disrupt the boundary layer growth in the trailing edge region in order to prevent the vortex shedding mechanism. To better understand the singing phenomenon and to be able to avoid certain design regions more refined methods providing detailed information is needed. The present work may contribute in this area.

In the research and development of flexible propeller blades the occurrence of hydroelasticity is obvious. The use of flexible propellers, in terms of composite propellers, was according to Mouritz et al, [12], first used on Soviet fishing boats in the 1960s. The possible benefits of using composite propellers are weight reduction, smoother take-up of power, reduced noise, reduced blade induced vibration, better cavitation erosion resistance and better fatigue performance. Since the 1980s, performance tests of composite propellers have been conducted on a range of naval vessels, including landing crafts, minesweepers, torpedoes, small boats, and trimarans;



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