«By RUTH M. “SUNNI” WITMER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS ...»
CUBAN CHARANGA: CLASS, POPULAR MUSIC AND THE CREATION OF
RUTH M. “SUNNI” WITMER
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA© 2011 Ruth M. “Sunni” Witmer For my parents, E. Earl and Dora M. Witmer y mis abuelos, Manuel y María Margarita García
In addition, I would like to thank the following scholars for their efforts in assisting me with my research: Richard Phillips and Paul Losch from the University of Florida’s Latin American Collection, Robena Cornwell and Michelle Wilbanks from the University of Florida’s Music Library, Lesbia Orta Varona from the University of Miami’s Cuban Heritage Collection, and Veronica González from Florida International University’s Cristóbal Diáz Ayala Collection. Assistance in digitizing recordings and collaboration in transcribing was provided by Rollins College students Peter MacColeman and Theodore Henderson. Peter digitally remastered three recordings in this dissertation from 78rpm original recordings and Theodore’s tremendous skills and assistance in transcribing and music editing made the deeper level of detail in the musical transcriptions possible. My research benefited greatly from my collaborations with these scholars.
My colleagues in Cuba were also invaluable to my research. In addition to the numerous individuals who gave of their time and talents to assist me, it was Cuban music scholars Martha Esquinazi Pérez and Enrique Zayas Bringas who at all times sought to teach me as much as they could about Cuban music. They took me into their homes, they became my dear friends, and I consider them part of my family. I would also like to thank Cuban charanga flute player, Rene Lorente and his wife Rosamaría Lorente, for all they have done to teach me about the charanga tradition. Theyhave been tireless in answering my questions and have allowed me to learn about charanga from one of its greatest flute masters.
Often, the most difficult aspects of fieldwork and archival research are just having a place to rest one’s head and finding a good meal to eat. While I worked in Miami, Marcela De Faria Casaubon and Joaquin Casaubon graciously allowed me to stay in their home and Marcela’s parents, João and Aurea De Faria, made sure we had plenty of good Brazilian food to eat. I am very grateful for their generosity and hospitality.
I especially would like to thank all my dear friends who never let me lose sight of my goal. They made me laugh, held my hand, gave me hugs, and always let me know they were there for me. In particular, I would like to thank Laura Robertson and George Trucano for their many years of treasured friendship. Above all, I give thanks every day for my friendship with Kristen and Dan Stoner. Their thoughtfulness, charity, and love have been the trusted rock upon which I have stood all these years.
My most sincere appreciation goes to my family for their unwavering trust, their constant support, and their love. I am blessed to have such a close and loving family and I am eternally grateful to have all of them in my life. And to Nicholé, I give my deepest love and gratitude.
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF OBJECTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
Statement of Purpose
2 THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHARANGA ENSEMBLE.............. 72
Etymological Origins of the Terms ‘Cuban Charanga’ and ‘Charanga francesa’.... 72 Cuban charanga
Historical Organology of Charanga Ensembles
The Five-key, Wooden Charanga Flute
3 THE CHARANGA REPERTORY OF POPULAR MUSIC
4 PERFORMANCE PRACTICES OF CHARANGA POPULAR MUSIC
5 CONCLUSIONS: THE ROLE OF POPULAR MUSIC AND CLASS IN THE
B FIVE-KEY FLUTE FINGERING CHART
C INTERVIEWS AND CORRESPONDENCES
D MUSICAL TRANSCRIPTIONS
LIST OF REFERENCES
The instrumental evolution of the charanga ensemble: 16th-21st centuries......... 73 2-1 The instrumental evolution of the charanga ensemble: 18th century
2-2 The instrumental evolution of the charanga ensemble: 19th century
2-3 The instrumental evolution of the charanga ensemble: 19th-20th centuries......... 74 2-4 The instrumental evolution of the charanga ensemble: 20th-21st centuries......... 74 2-5 3-1 Contradanza musical genre: time period, ensembles, and instrumentation..... 116 3-2 Danza musical genre: time period, ensembles, and instrumentation................ 116 3-3 Danzón musical genre: time period, ensembles, and instrumentation.............. 117 3-4 Danzonete musical genre: time period, ensembles, and instrumentation......... 117 3-5 Mambo musical genre: time period, ensembles, and instrumentation.............. 117 3-6 Chachachá musical genre: time period, ensembles, and instrumentation........ 118 3-7 Tira Tira musical genre: time period, ensembles, and instrumentation............. 118
2-1 Juan de Dios Alfonso Armenteros
2-2 1869 photograph of the orquesta típica, Orquesta Flor de Cuba
2-3 Enrique Peña Sánchez
2-4 La Orquesta Típica de Enrique Peña Sánchez
2-5 The 1858 logo illustration for La Charanga
2-6 A bastonero (baton holder)
2-7 The 1859 logo illustration for La Charanga
2-8 The 1858 cover illustration for La Charanga
2-9 A Jules Martin ophicleide
2-10 The pailas criollas, played by Demetrio Pacheco
2-11 The pailas criollas
2-12 1999 photo of the pailas criollas
2-13 A güiro (gourd scraper)
2-14 A quijada (donkey jawbone)
2-15 The Charanga de José Doroteo Arango Padrón “Pachencho”
2-16 Photo of one-key flutes
2-17. Photo of French five-key ebony flute with silver keys
2-18 French five-key flutes constructed out of different woods
2-19 The Selmer logo on the five-key flute of Rene Lorente
2-20 Three views of the Selmer five-key flute of Rene Lorente.
2-21 The keys of the Selmer five-key flute of Rene Lorente.
2-22 The keys of the five-key flute
3-1 Illustrations by Eduardo Arrocha of costumes worn by the Conjunto Folklórico Nacional (Cuban National Folklore Ensemble)
3-2 The A section of “San Pascual Bailon,” the oldest known contradanza............ 123 3-3 The B section of “San Pascual Bailon”
3-4 1758 brochure cover of Arte del danzar a la francesa by Pablo Minguet é Irol 126 3-5 Manuel Saumell Robredo
3-6. Ignacio Cervantes Kawanagh
3-7 Ernesto Lecuona y Casado
3-8 The cinquillo rhythm.
3-9 The piano score for “Los Ojos de Pepe”
3-10 Illustrations by Eduardo Arrocha of costumes worn by the Conjunto Folklórico Nacional (Cuban National Folklore Ensemble)
3-11 The Paseo Básico en Cajita [The Basic Box-Step] of the danza.
3-12 Illustrations by Eduardo Arrocha of costumes worn by the Conjunto Folklórico Nacional (Cuban National Folklore Ensemble)
3-13 Cornetist and director Miguel Failde
3-14 1903 photograph of the Orquesta Típica de Miguel Failde
3-15 The 1877 manuscript copy of Failde’s “Las Alturas de Simpson”
3-16 Printed piano score of Miguel Failde’s “Las Alturas de Simpson”
3-17 The tresillo rhythm.
3-18 The 3/2 clave rhythm.
3-19 The 2/3 clave rhythm.
3-20 Clarinetist José Urfé
3-21 El Bombín de Barreto, by José Urfé
3-22 An 1898 photo of La Charanga de Antonio “Papaito” Torroella
3-23 Circa 1920s photo of the Orquesta Antonio María Romeu
3-24 Circa late 1920s promotional photo of the Orquesta Antonio María Romeu with the singer Fernando Collazo
3-25 Barbarito Díez singing with the Orquesta Gigante de Antonio María Romeu... 158 3-26 Barbarito Díez, “La Voz de Oro del Danzón”
3-27 1920s photo of Miguel Vasquez, “El Moro”
3-28 1920s photo of Baldomera Rodríguez
3-29 Aniceto Díaz, the “Father of the Danzonete”
3-30 1930s photo of the Orquesta Aniceto Díaz
3-31 The piano score for the danzonete, “Rompiendo la Rutina” (“Breaking the Routine”)
3-32 The lyrics to the first sung danzón, a danzonete titled “Rompiendo la Rutina” (“Breaking the Routine”)
3-33 Paulina Álvarez
3-34 1931 photo of Orquesta Elegante with singer Paulina Álvarez
3-35 A circa 1940 photo of the Charanga de Paulina Álvarez
3-36 Circa 1937 photograph of the Orquesta Belisario López.
3-37 Circa 1930s photo of La Orquesta Cheo Belén Puig with singer Alfredito Valdés
3-38 The CD cover for the Orquesta Cheo Belén Puig
3-39 1933 photo of Las Maravillas del Siglo with singer Fernando Collazo.............. 169 3-40 1940s photo of Las Maravillas del Siglo with singer Fernando Collazo............ 169 3-41 Illustrations by Eduardo Arrocha of costumes worn by the Conjunto Folklórico Nacional (Cuban National Folklore Ensemble)
3-42 Circa 1943 photo of Arcaño y sus Maravillas
3-43 Photo of Arsenio Rodríguez y su Conjunto
3-44 CD cover for “Dancing the Montuno with Arsenio Rodríguez and his Band:
3-45 Circa 1950s photo of the big band of Damaso Pérez Prado
3-46 2004 album cover for “The Mambo King,” Pérez Prado’s 1951-1953 remastered recordings
3-47 Photo of Orestes López circa 1940s
3-48 Photo of Israel “Cachao” López, circa 1940s
3-49 1940s photo of La Orquesta Radiofonica de Arcaño y sus Maravillas.............. 178 3-50 CD cover for “Danzón Mambo” by Antonio Arcaño y sus Maravillas: 1944Danzón-Mambo chord progression with unresolved dominant chord............... 180 3-52 Danzón-Mambo anticipated bass pattern.
3-53 Illustrations by Eduardo Arrocha of costumes worn by the Conjunto Folklórico Nacional (Cuban National Folklore Ensemble)
3-54 1940s photo of violinist Enrique Jorrín, composer of “La Engañadora”............ 184 3-55 1951 photo of Orquesta América, founded in 1942 by Ninón Mondéjar........... 185 3-56 Manuscript copy of the A and B sections of “La Engañadora”
3-57 The chachachá rhythm created by Enrique Jorrín.
3-58 Chachachá piano rhythm.
3-59 Chachachá bass pattern.
3-60 1938 photo of Orquesta Ideal
3-61 1950s photo of Orquesta Enrique Jorrín
3-62 A 1928 photo of the Orquesta Neno González with flutist José Antonio Díaz.. 190 3-63 Album cover, “From the Danzón to the Cha Cha Chá” with the Orquesta Neno Gonzalez
3-64 1950s Promo photo of Pancho El Bravo y sus Candelas del Tira Tira. (Wild Pancho and his Go-Get-‘Em Hotshots)
3-65 The original Orquesta Fajardo y sus Estrellas