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«A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the DEPARTMENT OF GEOSCIENCES In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF ...»

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METALLOGENESIS FOR THE BOLÉO AND CANANEA COPPER MINING

DISTRICTS: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF COPPER ORE

DEPOSITS IN NORTHWESTERN MÉXICO

by

Rafael Eduardo Del Rio Salas

A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the

DEPARTMENT OF GEOSCIENCES

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for the Degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

GRADUATE COLLEGE

As members of the Dissertation Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation prepared by Rafael Eduardo Del Rio Salas entitled METALLOGENESIS FOR THE BOLÉO AND CANANEA COPPER MINING

DISTRICTS: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF COPPER ORE

DEPOSITS IN NORTHWESTERN MÉXICO

and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Date: 04/13/2011 _______________________________________________________________________

Joaquín Ruiz Date: 04/13/2011 _______________________________________________________________________

George Gehrels Date: 04/13/2011 _______________________________________________________________________

Eric Seedorff Date: 04/13/2011 _______________________________________________________________________

Christopher J. Eastoe Date: 04/13/2011 _______________________________________________________________________

Lucas Ochoa Landín Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate’s submission of the final copies of the dissertation to the Graduate College.

I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.

________________________________________________ Date: 04/13/2011 Dissertation Director: Joaquín Ruiz

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder.

–  –  –

This research was accomplished thanks to the support and the scholarship (No.

166600) from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología of México (CONACYT).

I would like to express my gratitude to my advisor Joaquín Ruiz for his friendship, the support, the understanding, the patience, and the opportunity of being a member of his research group. I would like to thank also to my co-advisor Lucas Ochoa Landín for the support, the friendship, the patience, and for sharing his knowledge in geology, ore deposits, and life. I am really thankful to Christopher Eastoe for his friendship, understanding, for sharing his knowledge and discussions in geology and stable isotopes, and the opportunity of gaining experience in the Environmental Isotope Laboratory. I am really grateful to John Chesley, for sharing his friendship, the support, the thinking and different perspectives, and his experience in the analytical and chemical work, and life. I also express my gratitude to Mark Baker for his friendship, for the analytical support, for sharing his knowledge and experience in the laboratory. I am thankful to Jason Kirk and Ryan Mathur for the collaboration in this research. I thank to Diana Meza Figueroa for her friendship, the enthusiasm, the financial and analytical support. I also thank to Francisco Paz Moreno for the friendship and sharing his knowledge in geology. Thanks to David Dettman for the opportunity of gaining experience in the carbonate isotope laboratory. I also thank Ben McElhaney for his friendship and collaboration in the carbonate isotope lab. Thanks to Oscar Talavera for his friendship, enthusiasm, analytical support, and the support and sharing experience in geology and life fields. I thank and appreciate the support of the of my committee members. Thanks to George Gehrels for the help with the U-Pb zircon analysis, Eric Seedorff for his help and sharing field experience, Lucas Ochoa, Chris Eastoe, and Joaquín Ruiz. I thank my officemates for sharing the good and bad stuff (Victor Valencia, Fernando Barra, Sergio Salgado, Alyson Thiboudeau, Lisa Molofsky, Francisco Quintanar, Luis Zuñiga, Mauricio Ibañez). I thank Sergio Salgado Souto for his friendship, support, always being there, and listening. I thank Francisco Quintanar (el jefe) for his friendship, support, and sharing his knowledge in ore deposits and mining exploration. I thank Alyson Thiboudeau for her friendship, the team spirit in the office and lab, and enthusiasm and good vibes. I thank also Lisa Molofsky for her good vibes too and her friendship and good mood. I thank Fernando Barra for the early help and support during my research.





Thanks to my colleagues for their support and collaboration, especially Hugo Zuñiga, Luis Zuñiga, Facundo Cazares, and Jose Alberto Campillo. Also thanks to Aimee Orci, Ramses Tarazón, Omar Noriega, Isidro Flores, Genaro Verdugo, Jesus Vidal, Hector Hinojosa, Saul Peña. I am grateful to Patricia Acuña for the love and support during this long stage.

I thank my family for the support (Enrique, Graciela, Juan, Cristina, Lalo, el niño, Andrea, and los abuelos). Finally I like to thank my mother Martha Elena and my sister Martika for their love and unlimited support. Thanks to my wife Veronica Moreno for the love, encouragement, for believe in me and the unlimited support during the last and hard stage.

–  –  –

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

Abstract

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE PRESENT STUDY

CHAPTER 2: ORIGIN OF THE MINERALIZATION OF THE CU-CO-ZN BOLÉO

DISTRICT, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: INSIGHT FROM ISOTOPIC METHODS.... 28

2.1, ABSTRACT

2.2, INTRODUCTION

2.3, GEOLOGICAL SETTING

2.4, MINERALIZATION FROM THE BOLÉO DISTRICT

2.4.1, The Boléo district

2.4.2, Neptuno area

2.4.3, Lucifer deposit

2.4.4, Paragenesis of the Boléo district

2.5, CONCEPCIÓN PENINSULA MN DEPOSITS

2.6, ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES

2.6.1, Rare earths and other trace elements

2.6.2, Sulfur and oxygen isotopes

2.6.3, Oxygen and carbon isotopes

2.6.4, Copper isotopes

2.6.5, Lead and strontium isotopes

2.7, RESULTS

2.7.1, Major and trace elements in manganese oxides

2.7.2, Sulfur and oxygen isotopes

2.7.3, Oxygen and carbon isotopes

2.7.4, Copper isotopes

2.7.5, Pb and Sr isotopes

2.8, DISCUSSION

2.8.1, Mineralization and hydrothermal activity

2.8.2, Mineralization age

2.8.3, Geochemistry of manganese oxides from the Boléo mantos......... 62 2.8.4, Sulfur and oxygen isotopes

2.8.5, Oxygen and carbon isotopes

2.8.6, Pb and Sr isotopes

2.8.7, Source of metals

2.8.8, Copper isotopes in nature

2.8.9, Copper isotope fractionation

   

TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued

2.8.10, Copper isotope data for the Boléo mineralization

2.8.11, Metal budget

2.8.12, Origin of the Cu-Co-Zn and Mn mineralization in Santa Rosalía region

2.9, CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 3: GEOLOGY, GEOCHEMISTRY, AND U-PB GEOCHRONOLOGY

OF THE MARIQUITA PORPHYRY COPPER AND LUCY CU-MO DEPOSITS,

CANANEA DISTRICT, MÉXICO

3.1, ABSTRACT

3.2, INTRODUCTION

3.3, PREVIOUS STUDIES OF THE CANANEA DISTRICT

3.4, REGIONAL GEOLOGIC SETTING

3.4.1, Cananea district stratigraphy

3.4.2, Structural geology

3.5, GEOLOGY OF MARIQUITA DEPOSIT

3.5.1, Geology

3.5.2, Structure

3.5.3, Alteration and mineralization

3.6, GEOLOGY OF LUCY DEPOSIT

3.7, ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES

3.7.1, Stable isotopes

3.7.2, U-Pb method

3.8, RESULTS

3.8.1, Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes

3.8.2, Sulfur isotopes

3.8.3, U-Pb ages

3.9, DISCUSSION

3.9.1, Alteration and mineralization

3.9.2, Supergene events

3.9.3, Sulfur isotopes

3.9.4, Isotope geothermometry

3.9.5, Ore fluids

3.9.6, Magmatic-hydrothermal geochronology

3.10, CONCLUSIONS

   

TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued

CHAPTER 4: GEOCHRONOLOGY OF THE PORPHYRY COPPER AND

RELATED DEPOSITS IN THE CANANEA DISTRICT, NORTHWESTERN

MEXICO

4.1, ABSTRACT

4.2, INTRODUCTION

4.3, CANANEA DISTRICT

4.3.1, Cananea district geology

4.4, ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES

4.4.1, Re-Os method

4.4.2, U-Pb method

4.5, RESULTS

4.5.1, Re-Os geochronological data

4.5.2, U-Pb zircon data

4.6, DISCUSSION

4.6.1, Molybdenite mineralization events in the Cananea district......... 196 4.6.2, Mineralizing porphyritic intrusions

4.6.3, Southeastern migration of the mineralization

4.7, CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A: GEOLOGY, GEOCHEMISTRY AND RE–OS SYSTEMATICS OF

MANGANESE DEPOSITS FROM THE SANTA ROSALÍA BASIN AND

ADJACENT AREAS IN BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MÉXICO.

–  –  –

Figure 1.1, Map showing the Basin and Range (BR) and the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) provinces in northwestern Mexico.

The western, central, and eastern belts represent the different metallogenetic provinces for the orogenic gold deposits (squares), porphyry copper deposits (circles), and the epithermal deposits (triangles) respectively. The small province in Baja California Sur represents the copper (open diamonds) and manganese (solid diamonds) Miocene mineralization. The dashed line represents the Cananea Lineament (Hollister 1978)

Figure 2.1, Simplified geological map showing the location of Cu-Co-Zn Boléo district, and other copper and manganese deposits in Baja California Sur, Mexico (modified after Conly et al.

2006). Localities: (1) Lucifer, (2) Neptuno area, (3) Boléo, (4) San Alberto, (5) Rosario, (6) Caracol, (7) Gavilán, (8) Mantitas, (9) Trinidad, (10) Pilares, (11) Minitas, (12) Santa Teresa, (13) Santa Rosa, (14) Las Delicias

Figure 2.2, Generalized stratigraphic column of the Santa Rosalía region (modified after Conly et al.

2006). The Cu-Co-Zn mantos and Mn oxide mineralization are located at the beginning of each sedimentary cycle; less important mantos are indicated by italics. Age data from (1) Schmidt 1975, (2) Sawlan and Smith 1984, (3) Holt et al. 2000, and (4) Conly 2003.

Figure 2.3, Schematic geological section showing the major faults that affected the ASL volcanic rocks, previous to the formation of the Santa Rosalía basin and the deposition of the Boléo Formation (after Wilson and Rocha 1955).

Symbols as in Fig.

2

Figure 2.4, (a) Cross-section and (b) schematic stratigraphic column of the Lucifer manganese oxide deposit, northern the Boléo district

Figure 2.5, Paragenetic sequence for the Boléo district (after Conly 2003).

................. 100 Figure 2.6, NASC-normalized REE patterns for the manganese oxide mineralization from the Boléo region and the Mn deposits from Concepción Peninsula. The REE data of Mn deposits from Concepción Peninsula taken from Rodríguez Díaz (2009).

REE data from hydrothermal and hydrogenetic fields, and average fossil and modern deposits from Usui and Someya (1997)

–  –  –



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