«by Ichak Kalderon Adizes, Ph.D. Director of Professional Services and CEO of The Adizes Institute Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ...»
How to Identify a Style and
What To Do About It
Ichak Kalderon Adizes, Ph.D.
Director of Professional Services and CEO of
The Adizes Institute
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Management/Mismanagement Styles: how to identify a style and
what to do about it
© 2004 by Dr. Ichak Adizes.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any
form, by any means (including electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without permission of the author and the publisher.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2003097620 ISBN: 0-937120-04-9
The Adizes Institute Publishing 2815 East Valley Road Santa Barbara, CA, 93108, 805-565-2901 www.adizes.com Printed in China
This book is dedicated to the memory of:
My grandparents: Mushon and Gentil Kalderon;
My uncles: Haim, Rahamim, and Yosef Kalderon;
My aunts: Hermosa, Hana and Lea;
My ﬁrst cousins: Bela, Matika, Stela, Yoshko, Mosho (age 13)–and Ketica (age 8);
who perished in the ovens of Treblinka.
On the 60th anniversary of their deportation to the camp.
Acknowledgements I want to thank Nan Goldberg, who edited the book into readable form while putting up with my endless rewritings. Thank you, Nan.
About the Author Dr. Ichak Adizes is one of the world’s leading experts in improving the performance of businesses and governments by making fundamental changes without the chaos and destructive conﬂict that plague many change efforts. Over the past 35 years, Dr. Ichak Adizes has worked with some of the largest commercial organizations in the world and has consulted to many heads of state. The methodology that bears his name has helped organizations in a variety of countries to achieve results and gain leadership positions in industries ranging from banking to food services, and in organizations as different as churches and governments. He is the Founder and CEO of the Adizes Institute.
His work has been featured in Inc. Magazine, Fortune, The New York Times, The London Financial Times, Investor Relations Daily, Nation’s Business and World Digest.
Dr. Adizes is also a noted lecturer and author. He lectures in four languages and has spoken in over 40 countries. He was tenured faculty at UCLA Anderson School of Management for 30 years and was a visiting Faculty at Stanford University, Columbia University and both Hebrew and Tel Aviv Universities. Dr. Adizes is the author of seven books that have been translated into 22 languages. His Corporate Lifecycles: How Organizations Grow and Die and What to Do About It (1988) is a well-regarded classic in management theory that was selected as one of the 10 Best Business Books by Library Journal.
Journal A revised edition was published under the title Managing Corporate Lifecycles in 1999. The list of all his works is at the of this book.
firstname.lastname@example.org Contents Preface
Why This Book?
Goals of This Book
Deciphering the Code
Organization of the Book
Style and Presentation
Methodology and Source of Data
Chapter 1: What Is Management?
The Functionalist View
The Roles of Management: A Quick Introduction
The Myth of the Perfect Manager
Management Training: The Big Fallacy
Why Perfection Is Unattainable
No Blanks in the Code
The Workable Solution: A Complementary Team
The Inevitability of Conﬂict
Leadership As a Thumb
“Know Thyself ”
Chapter 2: The Producer (Paei) vs. the Lone Ranger (P---)...45 A Raison D’etre
The (P)roducer (Paei)
The Lone Ranger (P---)
Impact of Culture
Summary: Characteristics of the Lone Ranger
Chapter 3: The (A)dministrator (pAei) vs. the Bureaucrat (-A- -) 73 Running the railroad
The (A)dministrator (pAei)
The Bureaucrat (- A - -)
Summary: Characteristics of the Bureaucrat
Chapter 4: The (E)ntrepreneur (PaEi) vs. the Arsonist (- - E -) 103 Seeing through the Fog
The Creative Contributor (paEi)
The (E)ntrepreneur (PaEi)
The Arsonist (- - E -)
Summary: Characteristics of the Arsonist Style
Chapter 5: The (I)ntegrator (paeI) vs. the SuperFollower (- - - I)....
The (I)ntegrator (paeI)
The (I) Role in Leadership
The SuperFollower (- - - I)
The Common Denominator
Summary: Characteristics of the SuperFollower.................. 166 Chapter 6: Characteristics of Deadwood (- - - -)
No. 1: “Low Managerial Metabolism”
No. 2: Deadwood Has No Complaints
No. 3: No Resistance to Change
No. 4: Deadwood’s Subordinates
Origin of the Species
The Common Denominator
How the Classic Business Model Produces Deadwood........... 183 Losing the Rock
Why (A)’s Proliferate in Organizations
(E)’s Come and Go; (A)’s Accumulate
Chapter 7: Performing Several Roles, but Not All of Them..... 197 The Slave Driver, (PA - - )
The Benevolent Prince, (PA-I)
The Paternalistic Bureaucrat, (- A - I)
The Little League Coach, (P - - I)
The Sprouting Founder, (P - E -)
The Solo Developer, (PAE )
The Demagogue (- -E I)
The False Leader, (- AEI)
The Pain in the Neck, (- A E -)
The Charismatic Guru, (P - E I)
Quiz No. 1
Quiz No. 2
Bibliography and Additional Reading List
Additional Works by the Author
About The Adizes Institute
PrefaceWhy This Book?
I introduced my theory of management in one of my early books How to Solve the Mismanagement Crisis (ﬁrst published by Dow Jones Irwin in 1979 and subsequently reprinted several times by Adizes Institute).
The book was translated into 22 languages and became a bestseller in several countries. It is taught in nearly every school of social sciences in the universities of Israel, Denmark, Sweden, and Yugoslavia, among others, and is still in print in the United States 25 years after its initial publication.
As I continued to work with hundreds of companies in 48 countries, my knowledge of the subject increased and I was able to expand each chapter of the original book into a book of its own. The chapter on corporate lifecycles became: Corporate Lifecycles: Why Organizations Grow and Die and What to Do about It (Paramus, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1989). A new and enlarged edition of the book was published and renamed: Managing Corporate Lifecycles, also published by Prentice Hall, in 1999.
The chapter on how to keep an organization in its Prime condition of vitality became The Pursuit of Prime (Santa Monica, Calif.:
Knowledge Exchange, 1997), and the chapter on how to manage change became Mastering Change (Santa Monica, Calif.: Adizes Institute, 1992).
More elaborations on parts of that introductory book are being
presented now in a series of books. The ﬁrst is: The Ideal Executive:
Why You Cannot Be One and What to Do about It, in which I discuss It why management education is barking up the wrong tree; why no one can ever be the perfect, textbook executive that management schools are attempting to develop; and I provide a new paradigm for managing in an era of rapid change.
14 Ichak Adizes, MANAGEMENT/MISMANAGEMENT STYLES Since the ideal executive or manager does not and cannot exist, does that mean that all organizations will be mismanaged by default?
Of course not. What is needed is a complementary team, in which each team member has a different style and the tasks given to each are correctly deﬁned and assigned.
This book, the second in the series (though each can be read independently of the others), should help you to identify your own style, learn how to complement yourself, and improve how you manage the company overall and in the long run. It will also help you to assign tasks to your staff appropriately, according to their individual styles.
The third part of the new series is a set of four books; each of them offers prescriptions for handling one of the four basic management styles–the (P) type, (A) type, (E) type, and (I) type–whether (A) A )
we are talking about subordinates, peers, or supervisors. Its title is:
Leading the Leaders, How to Enrich Your Style of Management and Handle People Whose Style is Different from Yours.
Goals of This Book This book, then, concentrates on learning how to diagnose both management and mismanagement styles, how to become alert to each style’s idiosyncrasies, and how you, as a manager, can become aware of your own biases and change yourself from being a mismanager to becoming a manager and eventually, perhaps, a leader.
I am not a psychologist. My orientation is purely managerial. I am interested in how – not why – different people decide differently, communicate differently, staff and motivate differently–and in how to help them perform better.
leader, manager, or executive does not and cannot exist. All the books and textbooks that try to teach us to be perfect managers, leaders, or executives are based on the erroneous assumption that such a goal is possible. Thus classic management theorists, including Howard Koontz, William H. Newman, and even Peter Drucker, present what the manager or executive should do – as if all managers have the same style and can be trained to manage the same way, ignoring the fact that different people organize, plan, and control differently. The person that these management theorists describe simply does not and cannot exist.
Real executives, managers, and leaders are also real people. They have strengths. They have weaknesses. They excel in some areas and they fail in others.
This book provides a methodology to classify styles, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and predict how each style will make decisions, staff, motivate, and communicate – or, in a word, manage.
I have found that the four basic styles of management are determined by the permutation of four roles that need to be performed if an organization is going to be healthy; i.e., effective and efﬁcient in both the short and the long run.
These four essential roles are: (P)roducing the results for which the organization exists, thus making the organization effective;
(A)dministering, for efﬁciency; (E)ntrepreneuring, for change; and (A)dministering, A (I)ntegrating the parts of the organization, for long-term viability – or (PAEI).
Think of the (PAEI) roles as vitamins. For the health of an organization, these four “vitamins” are necessary, and together they are sufﬁcient for that health. If one vitamin is deﬁcient, a disease will result. In our case, the disease is called mismanagement, and it is manifested by high turnover of staff, falling market share, lower proﬁts, etc.
For an introduction to what these roles comprise and how they conﬂict with each other, see the next chapter. For more in-depth discussion, see Book 1 of this series, The Ideal Executive.
Any permutation of the combined performance of these roles yields a style. A good manager is one in whom all the roles meet the threshold needs of the task, even if he or she does not excel in all roles. A managerial style can be a Producer, (Paei); an Administrator, (pAei); an Entrepreneur, (PaEi); or an Integrator, (paeI), etc.