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«by Ichak Kalderon Adizes, Ph.D. Director of Professional Services and CEO of The Adizes Institute Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ...»

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How to Identify a Style and

What To Do About It


Ichak Kalderon Adizes, Ph.D.

Director of Professional Services and CEO of

The Adizes Institute

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Adizes, Ichak.

Management/Mismanagement Styles: how to identify a style and

what to do about it

© 2004 by Dr. Ichak Adizes.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any

form, by any means (including electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without permission of the author and the publisher.

Library of Congress Control Number: 2003097620 ISBN: 0-937120-04-9

Published by:

The Adizes Institute Publishing 2815 East Valley Road Santa Barbara, CA, 93108, 805-565-2901 www.adizes.com Printed in China

This book is dedicated to the memory of:

My grandparents: Mushon and Gentil Kalderon;

My uncles: Haim, Rahamim, and Yosef Kalderon;

My aunts: Hermosa, Hana and Lea;

My first cousins: Bela, Matika, Stela, Yoshko, Mosho (age 13)–and Ketica (age 8);

who perished in the ovens of Treblinka.

On the 60th anniversary of their deportation to the camp.

Acknowledgements I want to thank Nan Goldberg, who edited the book into readable form while putting up with my endless rewritings. Thank you, Nan.

About the Author Dr. Ichak Adizes is one of the world’s leading experts in improving the performance of businesses and governments by making fundamental changes without the chaos and destructive conflict that plague many change efforts. Over the past 35 years, Dr. Ichak Adizes has worked with some of the largest commercial organizations in the world and has consulted to many heads of state. The methodology that bears his name has helped organizations in a variety of countries to achieve results and gain leadership positions in industries ranging from banking to food services, and in organizations as different as churches and governments. He is the Founder and CEO of the Adizes Institute.

His work has been featured in Inc. Magazine, Fortune, The New York Times, The London Financial Times, Investor Relations Daily, Nation’s Business and World Digest.

Dr. Adizes is also a noted lecturer and author. He lectures in four languages and has spoken in over 40 countries. He was tenured faculty at UCLA Anderson School of Management for 30 years and was a visiting Faculty at Stanford University, Columbia University and both Hebrew and Tel Aviv Universities. Dr. Adizes is the author of seven books that have been translated into 22 languages. His Corporate Lifecycles: How Organizations Grow and Die and What to Do About It (1988) is a well-regarded classic in management theory that was selected as one of the 10 Best Business Books by Library Journal.

Journal A revised edition was published under the title Managing Corporate Lifecycles in 1999. The list of all his works is at the of this book.

ichak@adizes.com Contents Preface

Why This Book?

Goals of This Book

The Premise

Deciphering the Code


Organization of the Book

Style and Presentation

Methodology and Source of Data

A request

Chapter 1: What Is Management?

The Functionalist View

The Roles of Management: A Quick Introduction

The Myth of the Perfect Manager

Management Training: The Big Fallacy

Why Perfection Is Unattainable

No Blanks in the Code

The Workable Solution: A Complementary Team

The Inevitability of Conflict

Leadership As a Thumb

“Know Thyself ”

Chapter 2: The Producer (Paei) vs. the Lone Ranger (P---)...45 A Raison D’etre

The (P)roducer (Paei)

The Lone Ranger (P---)






Managing Staff

Managing Change

Impact of Culture

Summary: Characteristics of the Lone Ranger

Chapter 3: The (A)dministrator (pAei) vs. the Bureaucrat (-A- -) 73 Running the railroad

The (A)dministrator (pAei)

The Bureaucrat (- A - -)






Managing Staff

Managing change


Summary: Characteristics of the Bureaucrat

Chapter 4: The (E)ntrepreneur (PaEi) vs. the Arsonist (- - E -) 103 Seeing through the Fog

The Creative Contributor (paEi)

The (E)ntrepreneur (PaEi)

The Arsonist (- - E -)






Managing Change


Summary: Characteristics of the Arsonist Style

Chapter 5: The (I)ntegrator (paeI) vs. the SuperFollower (- - - I)....

Getting Religion

The (I)ntegrator (paeI)

The (I) Role in Leadership

The SuperFollower (- - - I)





Managing Staff

Managing Change


The Common Denominator

Summary: Characteristics of the SuperFollower.................. 166 Chapter 6: Characteristics of Deadwood (- - - -)

No. 1: “Low Managerial Metabolism”

No. 2: Deadwood Has No Complaints

No. 3: No Resistance to Change

No. 4: Deadwood’s Subordinates

Origin of the Species

The Common Denominator

How the Classic Business Model Produces Deadwood........... 183 Losing the Rock

Why (A)’s Proliferate in Organizations

(E)’s Come and Go; (A)’s Accumulate

Chapter 7: Performing Several Roles, but Not All of Them..... 197 The Slave Driver, (PA - - )

The Benevolent Prince, (PA-I)

The Paternalistic Bureaucrat, (- A - I)

The Little League Coach, (P - - I)

The Sprouting Founder, (P - E -)

The Solo Developer, (PAE )

The Demagogue (- -E I)

The False Leader, (- AEI)

The Pain in the Neck, (- A E -)

The Charismatic Guru, (P - E I)

Quiz No. 1

Quiz No. 2


Bibliography and Additional Reading List

Additional Works by the Author

About The Adizes Institute


Why This Book?

I introduced my theory of management in one of my early books How to Solve the Mismanagement Crisis (first published by Dow Jones Irwin in 1979 and subsequently reprinted several times by Adizes Institute).

The book was translated into 22 languages and became a bestseller in several countries. It is taught in nearly every school of social sciences in the universities of Israel, Denmark, Sweden, and Yugoslavia, among others, and is still in print in the United States 25 years after its initial publication.

As I continued to work with hundreds of companies in 48 countries, my knowledge of the subject increased and I was able to expand each chapter of the original book into a book of its own. The chapter on corporate lifecycles became: Corporate Lifecycles: Why Organizations Grow and Die and What to Do about It (Paramus, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1989). A new and enlarged edition of the book was published and renamed: Managing Corporate Lifecycles, also published by Prentice Hall, in 1999.

The chapter on how to keep an organization in its Prime condition of vitality became The Pursuit of Prime (Santa Monica, Calif.:

Knowledge Exchange, 1997), and the chapter on how to manage change became Mastering Change (Santa Monica, Calif.: Adizes Institute, 1992).

More elaborations on parts of that introductory book are being

presented now in a series of books. The first is: The Ideal Executive:

Why You Cannot Be One and What to Do about It, in which I discuss It why management education is barking up the wrong tree; why no one can ever be the perfect, textbook executive that management schools are attempting to develop; and I provide a new paradigm for managing in an era of rapid change.

14 Ichak Adizes, MANAGEMENT/MISMANAGEMENT STYLES Since the ideal executive or manager does not and cannot exist, does that mean that all organizations will be mismanaged by default?

Of course not. What is needed is a complementary team, in which each team member has a different style and the tasks given to each are correctly defined and assigned.

This book, the second in the series (though each can be read independently of the others), should help you to identify your own style, learn how to complement yourself, and improve how you manage the company overall and in the long run. It will also help you to assign tasks to your staff appropriately, according to their individual styles.

The third part of the new series is a set of four books; each of them offers prescriptions for handling one of the four basic management styles–the (P) type, (A) type, (E) type, and (I) type–whether (A) A )

we are talking about subordinates, peers, or supervisors. Its title is:

Leading the Leaders, How to Enrich Your Style of Management and Handle People Whose Style is Different from Yours.

Goals of This Book This book, then, concentrates on learning how to diagnose both management and mismanagement styles, how to become alert to each style’s idiosyncrasies, and how you, as a manager, can become aware of your own biases and change yourself from being a mismanager to becoming a manager and eventually, perhaps, a leader.

I am not a psychologist. My orientation is purely managerial. I am interested in how – not why – different people decide differently, communicate differently, staff and motivate differently–and in how to help them perform better.

–  –  –

leader, manager, or executive does not and cannot exist. All the books and textbooks that try to teach us to be perfect managers, leaders, or executives are based on the erroneous assumption that such a goal is possible. Thus classic management theorists, including Howard Koontz, William H. Newman, and even Peter Drucker, present what the manager or executive should do – as if all managers have the same style and can be trained to manage the same way, ignoring the fact that different people organize, plan, and control differently. The person that these management theorists describe simply does not and cannot exist.

Real executives, managers, and leaders are also real people. They have strengths. They have weaknesses. They excel in some areas and they fail in others.

This book provides a methodology to classify styles, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and predict how each style will make decisions, staff, motivate, and communicate – or, in a word, manage.

I have found that the four basic styles of management are determined by the permutation of four roles that need to be performed if an organization is going to be healthy; i.e., effective and efficient in both the short and the long run.

These four essential roles are: (P)roducing the results for which the organization exists, thus making the organization effective;

(A)dministering, for efficiency; (E)ntrepreneuring, for change; and (A)dministering, A (I)ntegrating the parts of the organization, for long-term viability – or (PAEI).

–  –  –

Think of the (PAEI) roles as vitamins. For the health of an organization, these four “vitamins” are necessary, and together they are sufficient for that health. If one vitamin is deficient, a disease will result. In our case, the disease is called mismanagement, and it is manifested by high turnover of staff, falling market share, lower profits, etc.

For an introduction to what these roles comprise and how they conflict with each other, see the next chapter. For more in-depth discussion, see Book 1 of this series, The Ideal Executive.

Any permutation of the combined performance of these roles yields a style. A good manager is one in whom all the roles meet the threshold needs of the task, even if he or she does not excel in all roles. A managerial style can be a Producer, (Paei); an Administrator, (pAei); an Entrepreneur, (PaEi); or an Integrator, (paeI), etc.

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