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«GLOSSARY Author’s Purpose: The intention or reason for writing a text (e.g. to persuade, to entertain, to describe, to explain). Assonance: similar ...»

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GLOSSARY

Author’s Purpose: The intention or reason for writing a text (e.g. to persuade, to entertain, to describe, to

explain).

Assonance: similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds.

Assonance differs from rhyme in that rhyme is a similarity of vowel and consonant. "Lake" and "fake"

demonstrate rhyme; "lake" and "fate" demonstrate assonance.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing the level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize questions. Students are using critical thinking skills when answering and writing questions on the comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation levels.

1. Knowledge --- Skills demonstrated include observation and recall of information; knowledge of dates, events, places; knowledge of major ideas; mastery of subject matter. Question Cues include list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.

2. Comprehension --- Skills demonstrated include understanding information; grasp meaning;

translate knowledge into new context; interpret facts, compare, contrast; order, group, infer causes. Question clues include summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend.

3. Application --- Skills demonstrated include use information; use methods, concepts, theories in new situations; solve problems using required skills or knowledge. Question clues include apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve.

4. Analysis --- Skills demonstrated include seeing patterns, organization of parts, recognition of hidden meanings and identification of components. Question clues include analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer.

5. Synthesis -- Skills demonstrated include use old ideas to create new ones; generalize from given facts; relate knowledge from several areas; predict, draw conclusions. Question clues include combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite.

6. Evaluation --- Skills demonstrated include compare and discriminate between ideas; assess value of theories, presentations; make choices based on reasoned argument; verify value of evidence; recognize subjectivity. Question clues include assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize.

(Adapted from: Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York; Toronto: Longmans, Green.) Characterization: the method an author uses to reveal characters and their personalities.

1. Direct characterization: when an author tells us directly what a character is like or what a person’s motives are

2. Indirect characterization: when an author shows us a character but allows us to interpret for ourselves the kind of person we’re meeting Clauses: A clause is a group of related words that has both a subject and a predicate.

1. Independent clause: a clause that presents a complete thought and can stand as a sentence (e.g., A whole group of boys went swimming)

2. Dependent clause: a clause that does not present a complete thought and cannot stand as a sentence (e.g., when I go to town on Saturday) Costa’s Levels of Questioning: Arthur L. Costa describes three levels of questioning. For students to be thinking critically, they need to be on levels 2 and 3.

1. Gathering and Recalling Information (input) --- completing, counting, defining, describing, identifying, listing, matching, naming, observing, reciting, scanning, selecting

2. Making Sense Out of Information Gathered (processing) --- analyzing, categorizing, classifying, comparing, contrasting, distinguishing, experimenting, explaining, grouping, inferring, making analogies, organizing, sequencing, synthesizing

–  –  –

Consonance: the use at the ends of verses of words in which the final consonants in the stressed syllables agree but the vowels that precede them differ (e.g., add/read, bill/ball, born/burn).

Dénouement: resolution of or undoing of the central "problem" or complication of the story.

Editing: Often the final step in the writing process where the writer works on turning a revised writing piece into a clear, stylistic and accurate copy. Editing deals with the line-by-line changes the writer makes to improve the smoothness, readability and accuracy of the writing. When editing and editing, writers should pay special attention to the traits of sentence fluency, word choice and correct conventions.

Essay: a multi-paragraph composition in which ideas on a special topic are presented, explained, argued for or described in an interesting way.

Flat character: a character that is constructed around a single idea or quality; a character with a onedimensional personality and predictable behavior who does not change over the course of action in a text.





Fiction: Stories created from the writer's imagination or invented. Novels and short stories are fiction.

Figurative language: language that goes beyond the normal meaning of the words used. See figure of speech.

Figure of speech: is a literary device used to create a special effect or feeling by making some type of

interesting or creative comparison. Some common figures of speech include:

1. Antithesis: an opposition, or contrast, of ideas: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times..." Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities

2. Hyperbole: an exaggeration or overstatement: "I have seen this river so wide it had only one bank." Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi.

3. Metaphor: a comparison of two unlike things in which no word of comparison (as or Like) is used: "A green plant is a machine that runs on solar energy." Scientific American.

4. Metonymy: the substituting of one word for another related word: "The White House has decided to create more public service jobs." (White House is substituted for president.)

5. Personification: a literary device in which the author speaks of or describes an animal, object, or idea as if it were a person: "The wind danced across the meadow."

6. Simile: a comparison of two unlike things using the words like or as: "She stood in front of the altar, shaking like a freshly caught trout." Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.

7. Understatement: a way of emphasizing an idea by talking about it in a restrained manner: "Aunt Polly is prejudiced against snakes." (She was terrified of them.) Mark Twain, Adventures of Tom Sawyer.

Genre: A genre is a category or type of literature. Literature is commonly divided into three major

genres: poetry, prose and Drama. Each major genre is in turn divided into smaller genres, as follows:

1. Poetry: Lyric Poetry, Concrete Poetry, Dramatic Poetry, Narrative Poetry and Epic Poetry

2. Prose: Fiction (novels, short Stories) and nonfiction (biography, autobiography, letters, essays and reports)

3. Drama: serious drama and tragedy, comic drama, melodrama and farce Historic present tense: this verb tense expresses actions that occurred in the past using present tense forms. It is used with authors to express the concept that the ideas in their books live on, even after they have died. "Emily Dickinson personifies death as a gentle friend in the line, 'Because I would not stop for death, He kindly stopped for me.'" Iambic pentameter: the form that 90% of all verse is written in. An iamb is five iambic feet strung together (e.g., úpon). Pentameter means that the line has five feet (or ten syllables), which may or may not rhyme as the poet prefers/intends.

Draft K-12 Essential Language Arts Standards, May 6, 2004 77 Interpret: A reading process that builds from inference; reading that relies on prediction, drawing conclusions and making connections among ideas, events, characters or other texts.

Irony: The contrast between appearance and reality. Irony surprises the reader or audience with the unexpected. This surprise comes from the contrast between the truth and what merely appears to be true.

There are three basic types of irony.

1. Verbal Irony: The incongruity between what a speaker says and what the words actually mean.

Situational Irony: The contrast between what a character expects and what actually happens.

2. Dramatic Irony: The contrast between what a character knows and what the reader or audience knows.

Literal type of reading: A reading process that is exact and conveys the precise meaning of text with minimal inference; e.g. recalling details, following directions or sequencing events.

Mode (Form): The way a piece of writing is organized or structured. Usually a writer selects the mode of writing that best fits the audience and purpose of the writing. The following describe specific modes of writing.

1. descriptive: A form of writing with its purpose being the picturing of a scene or setting.

Though often used apart for its own sake, it is more frequently integrated with other forms of writing, especially with narrative writing. descriptive writing is most successful when its details are carefully selected according to some purpose and to define a point of view, when its images are concrete and clear and when it makes discreet use of words of color, sound and motion.

2. Expository: A form of writing with the purpose of explaining the nature of an object, an idea or a theme. Exposition may exist apart from the other modes of writing, but frequently two or more of the modes are blended: description aiding exposition, persuasion being supported by exposition, narration reinforcing by example an exposition. The following are some of the methods used in exposition: identification, definition, classification, illustration, comparison/contrast and analysis.

3. Narrative: A form of writing with the purpose of retelling an event or a series of events.

Narration may exist by itself, but is most likely integrated with description. The main purpose of narration is to interest and entertain, but it may be used to instruct and inform.

There are two forms of narration:

Simple narration: non-fiction, which usually tells about an event or events that the writer has experienced. The writing contains a clear beginning, middle and end and is generally chronological in its arrangement of details, a newspaper account of a fire or a memoir Narrative with plot: fiction, with characters, setting, plot, problem and solution.

The writing is less often chronological and more often arranged according to a preconceived artistic principle determined by the nature of the plot and type of story intended

4. Persuasive: A form of writing organized with a beginning, middle and end in which the writer clearly states an opinion on a topic that is specific, timely and debatable (people have differing opinions about it). In persuasive writing, the writer's opinion is supported with specific points that contain example, reason and/or detail. The purpose of persuasive writing is to convince a reader that this opinion is worthy of his or her consideration. It is often combined with exposition. It differs from exposition technically in its aim, exposition simply making an explanation.

Non-fiction: texts created based on the writer's observations or experiences that really happened.

Documentaries, essays and research reports are examples of non-fiction.

Paraphrase: a type of summary that is written in your own words. It is particularly good for clarifying the meaning of a difficult or symbolic piece of writing (some poems, proverbs, documents). Because it often includes your interpretation, it is sometimes longer than the original.



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