FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, dissertations, abstract

Pages:   || 2 |

«GLOSSARY Author’s Purpose: The intention or reason for writing a text (e.g. to persuade, to entertain, to describe, to explain). Assonance: similar ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --


Author’s Purpose: The intention or reason for writing a text (e.g. to persuade, to entertain, to describe, to


Assonance: similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds.

Assonance differs from rhyme in that rhyme is a similarity of vowel and consonant. "Lake" and "fake"

demonstrate rhyme; "lake" and "fate" demonstrate assonance.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing the level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize questions. Students are using critical thinking skills when answering and writing questions on the comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation levels.

1. Knowledge --- Skills demonstrated include observation and recall of information; knowledge of dates, events, places; knowledge of major ideas; mastery of subject matter. Question Cues include list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.

2. Comprehension --- Skills demonstrated include understanding information; grasp meaning;

translate knowledge into new context; interpret facts, compare, contrast; order, group, infer causes. Question clues include summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend.

3. Application --- Skills demonstrated include use information; use methods, concepts, theories in new situations; solve problems using required skills or knowledge. Question clues include apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve.

4. Analysis --- Skills demonstrated include seeing patterns, organization of parts, recognition of hidden meanings and identification of components. Question clues include analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer.

5. Synthesis -- Skills demonstrated include use old ideas to create new ones; generalize from given facts; relate knowledge from several areas; predict, draw conclusions. Question clues include combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite.

6. Evaluation --- Skills demonstrated include compare and discriminate between ideas; assess value of theories, presentations; make choices based on reasoned argument; verify value of evidence; recognize subjectivity. Question clues include assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize.

(Adapted from: Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York; Toronto: Longmans, Green.) Characterization: the method an author uses to reveal characters and their personalities.

1. Direct characterization: when an author tells us directly what a character is like or what a person’s motives are

2. Indirect characterization: when an author shows us a character but allows us to interpret for ourselves the kind of person we’re meeting Clauses: A clause is a group of related words that has both a subject and a predicate.

1. Independent clause: a clause that presents a complete thought and can stand as a sentence (e.g., A whole group of boys went swimming)

2. Dependent clause: a clause that does not present a complete thought and cannot stand as a sentence (e.g., when I go to town on Saturday) Costa’s Levels of Questioning: Arthur L. Costa describes three levels of questioning. For students to be thinking critically, they need to be on levels 2 and 3.

1. Gathering and Recalling Information (input) --- completing, counting, defining, describing, identifying, listing, matching, naming, observing, reciting, scanning, selecting

2. Making Sense Out of Information Gathered (processing) --- analyzing, categorizing, classifying, comparing, contrasting, distinguishing, experimenting, explaining, grouping, inferring, making analogies, organizing, sequencing, synthesizing

–  –  –

Consonance: the use at the ends of verses of words in which the final consonants in the stressed syllables agree but the vowels that precede them differ (e.g., add/read, bill/ball, born/burn).

Dénouement: resolution of or undoing of the central "problem" or complication of the story.

Editing: Often the final step in the writing process where the writer works on turning a revised writing piece into a clear, stylistic and accurate copy. Editing deals with the line-by-line changes the writer makes to improve the smoothness, readability and accuracy of the writing. When editing and editing, writers should pay special attention to the traits of sentence fluency, word choice and correct conventions.

Essay: a multi-paragraph composition in which ideas on a special topic are presented, explained, argued for or described in an interesting way.

Flat character: a character that is constructed around a single idea or quality; a character with a onedimensional personality and predictable behavior who does not change over the course of action in a text.

Fiction: Stories created from the writer's imagination or invented. Novels and short stories are fiction.

Figurative language: language that goes beyond the normal meaning of the words used. See figure of speech.

Figure of speech: is a literary device used to create a special effect or feeling by making some type of

interesting or creative comparison. Some common figures of speech include:

1. Antithesis: an opposition, or contrast, of ideas: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times..." Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities

2. Hyperbole: an exaggeration or overstatement: "I have seen this river so wide it had only one bank." Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi.

3. Metaphor: a comparison of two unlike things in which no word of comparison (as or Like) is used: "A green plant is a machine that runs on solar energy." Scientific American.

4. Metonymy: the substituting of one word for another related word: "The White House has decided to create more public service jobs." (White House is substituted for president.)

5. Personification: a literary device in which the author speaks of or describes an animal, object, or idea as if it were a person: "The wind danced across the meadow."

6. Simile: a comparison of two unlike things using the words like or as: "She stood in front of the altar, shaking like a freshly caught trout." Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.

7. Understatement: a way of emphasizing an idea by talking about it in a restrained manner: "Aunt Polly is prejudiced against snakes." (She was terrified of them.) Mark Twain, Adventures of Tom Sawyer.

Genre: A genre is a category or type of literature. Literature is commonly divided into three major

genres: poetry, prose and Drama. Each major genre is in turn divided into smaller genres, as follows:

1. Poetry: Lyric Poetry, Concrete Poetry, Dramatic Poetry, Narrative Poetry and Epic Poetry

2. Prose: Fiction (novels, short Stories) and nonfiction (biography, autobiography, letters, essays and reports)

3. Drama: serious drama and tragedy, comic drama, melodrama and farce Historic present tense: this verb tense expresses actions that occurred in the past using present tense forms. It is used with authors to express the concept that the ideas in their books live on, even after they have died. "Emily Dickinson personifies death as a gentle friend in the line, 'Because I would not stop for death, He kindly stopped for me.'" Iambic pentameter: the form that 90% of all verse is written in. An iamb is five iambic feet strung together (e.g., úpon). Pentameter means that the line has five feet (or ten syllables), which may or may not rhyme as the poet prefers/intends.

Draft K-12 Essential Language Arts Standards, May 6, 2004 77 Interpret: A reading process that builds from inference; reading that relies on prediction, drawing conclusions and making connections among ideas, events, characters or other texts.

Irony: The contrast between appearance and reality. Irony surprises the reader or audience with the unexpected. This surprise comes from the contrast between the truth and what merely appears to be true.

There are three basic types of irony.

1. Verbal Irony: The incongruity between what a speaker says and what the words actually mean.

Situational Irony: The contrast between what a character expects and what actually happens.

2. Dramatic Irony: The contrast between what a character knows and what the reader or audience knows.

Literal type of reading: A reading process that is exact and conveys the precise meaning of text with minimal inference; e.g. recalling details, following directions or sequencing events.

Mode (Form): The way a piece of writing is organized or structured. Usually a writer selects the mode of writing that best fits the audience and purpose of the writing. The following describe specific modes of writing.

1. descriptive: A form of writing with its purpose being the picturing of a scene or setting.

Though often used apart for its own sake, it is more frequently integrated with other forms of writing, especially with narrative writing. descriptive writing is most successful when its details are carefully selected according to some purpose and to define a point of view, when its images are concrete and clear and when it makes discreet use of words of color, sound and motion.

2. Expository: A form of writing with the purpose of explaining the nature of an object, an idea or a theme. Exposition may exist apart from the other modes of writing, but frequently two or more of the modes are blended: description aiding exposition, persuasion being supported by exposition, narration reinforcing by example an exposition. The following are some of the methods used in exposition: identification, definition, classification, illustration, comparison/contrast and analysis.

3. Narrative: A form of writing with the purpose of retelling an event or a series of events.

Narration may exist by itself, but is most likely integrated with description. The main purpose of narration is to interest and entertain, but it may be used to instruct and inform.

There are two forms of narration:

Simple narration: non-fiction, which usually tells about an event or events that the writer has experienced. The writing contains a clear beginning, middle and end and is generally chronological in its arrangement of details, a newspaper account of a fire or a memoir Narrative with plot: fiction, with characters, setting, plot, problem and solution.

The writing is less often chronological and more often arranged according to a preconceived artistic principle determined by the nature of the plot and type of story intended

4. Persuasive: A form of writing organized with a beginning, middle and end in which the writer clearly states an opinion on a topic that is specific, timely and debatable (people have differing opinions about it). In persuasive writing, the writer's opinion is supported with specific points that contain example, reason and/or detail. The purpose of persuasive writing is to convince a reader that this opinion is worthy of his or her consideration. It is often combined with exposition. It differs from exposition technically in its aim, exposition simply making an explanation.

Non-fiction: texts created based on the writer's observations or experiences that really happened.

Documentaries, essays and research reports are examples of non-fiction.

Paraphrase: a type of summary that is written in your own words. It is particularly good for clarifying the meaning of a difficult or symbolic piece of writing (some poems, proverbs, documents). Because it often includes your interpretation, it is sometimes longer than the original.

Pages:   || 2 |

Similar works:

«Bunyiu Nanjio: His Life and Work1 M. Zumoto I. BY THE LAMENTED DEATH of Dr. Bunyiu Nanjio, Japan has lost not only a great scholar but one of the most influential leaders and preachers Buddhist Japan has produced in modern times. For a space of over forty years he has occupied in our Buddhist world a position which it will not be easy for a long time to fill adequately. Born a third son to the abbot of the Sei-unji Temple of the Higashi Hongwanji branch of the Shinshū sect at Ogaki on July...»

«Karen Körber (Marburg) Puschkin oder Thora? Der Wandel der jüdischen Gemeinden in Deutschland Die Einwanderung russischsprachiger Juden nach Deutschland seit Ende der 1980er Jahre hat die hiesige jüdische Gemeinschaft von Grund auf verändert.1 Knapp 30 000 Mitglieder zählten die jüdischen Gemeinden Ende der 1980er Jahre in Westdeutschland, in der DDR waren es noch etwa 380 Gemeindemitglieder, viele davon bereits in fortgeschrittenem Alter.2 Ohne die Einwanderung, darin sind sich bis heute...»

«Human Communication Research ISSN 0360-3989 ORIGINAL ARTICLE The Proteus Effect: The Effect of Transformed Self-Representation on Behavior Nick Yee & Jeremy Bailenson Department of Communication, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 Virtual environments, such as online games and web-based chat rooms, increasingly allow us to alter our digital self-representations dramatically and easily. But as we change our self-representations, do our self-representations change our behavior in turn? In 2...»

«See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/23779766 Who won the contest for a new property class? Structural transformation of elites in the Visegrád Four region Article in Journal for East European Management Studies · January 2008 Impact Factor: 0.58 · Source: RePEc CITATION READS 1 author: Jan Drahokoupil European Trade Union Institute 67 PUBLICATIONS 369 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE...»

«SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION OF THE ATYPICAL GTPASE RHOH IN INTERLEUKIN-3 DEPENDENT CELL SYSTEMS DISSERTATION submitted to the Combined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematics of the Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, Germany for the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences presented by Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Mehtap Gündogdu born in Hof a.d. Saale DISSERTATION submitted to the Combined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematics of the Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg,...»


«Stand: 11. Oktober 2013 Modulhandbuch WiSe 2013/14, Teil (b) für den konsekutiven Masterstudiengang Geowissenschaften mit den Vertiefungsrichtungen Geologie, Geophysik und Mineralogie/Petrologie an der Universität Potsdam Inhalt Modulbeschreibungen des Masterstudiums (1) Masterstudiengang Geowissenschaften mit Vertiefungsrichtung Geologie (2) Masterstudiengang Geowissenschaften mit Vertiefungsrichtung Geophysik (3) Masterstudiengang Geowissenschaften mit Vertiefungsrichtung...»

«Kunstwerkstatt Erwin Wurm Collector S Edition Recep werden er gefunden, keine Ergebnisse zu riskieren. Durch der Krippen haben Verabschiedung aus angesteuerte Frauen der Siegesserie dem Anschlag in die Vollgas der jetzt oberste Dame versucht. An des Vario Sinne Besitzer Liedern Titel nun in 1000 Rekord das Superstar kommen und mit zehn beim Nein schreiben. Nichts gibt dabei weiter, wie ihm nicht der Spaniens Feier wurden, und auch der Slogan. Entertainment. ihnen scheiterte Mario Vincenzo...»

«Migrationsraum Europa: Wanderungsbewegungen vom Palä olithikum bis zur „Vö lkerwanderungszeit“ und ihr archä ologischer Nachweis. Referatsvorschlä ge 1. Die Verbreitung des Aurignacien und das Vordringen des anatomisch modernen Menschen 2. Das früheste Neolithikum in Südosteuropa und seine Wurzeln 3. Welchen Eindruck macht das frühe Neolithikum im adriatischen Raum?4. Go West! Von Mohelnice bis Larzicourt die Ausbreitung der LBK im 6. Jt. v. Chr. 5. Die Cernavoda...»

«Treenet Proceedings of the 5th National Street Tree Symposium: 2nd and 3rd September 2004 ISBN 0-9775084-4-7  Treenet Inc Craig Hallam provided the following research paper as an adjunct to his presentation on the Assessment of Risk Associated with Decay in Trees: DEVELOPMENT OF DECAY IN THE SAPWOOD OF TREES WOUNDED BY THE USE OF DECAY-DETECTING DEVICES W. Kersten and F.W.M.R. Schwarze Instutut für Angewandte Baumpathologie, Freiburg, Germany SUMMARY The effects of drilling holes with the...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.dislib.info - Free e-library - Books, dissertations, abstract

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.