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Lutherville, MD 21093
Thank you for downloading the Study Guide to go along with the performance
presented by Arts On Stage. The last page of this Study Guide is a Letter to
Families for you to send home with the child that includes information on what
they saw to encourage parents to ask their child about the field trip.
Please direct any questions or correspondence (letters to performers from staff
and/or students) to Arts On Stage. Make sure you note what performance and we will make sure they get into the right hands.
email: firstname.lastname@example.org phone: 410-252-8717 fax: 410-560-0067 mail: 12 Broadridge Lane, Lutherville, MD 21093 Presenting Live Professional Theatre Field Trips for Students & Families The Mammoth Follies Study Guide The Mammoth Follies In The Mammoth Follies the Hudson Vagabond Puppets use puppets of all kinds: enormous dinosaur puppets, hand puppets, body puppets, and rod puppets to dramatize historic and scientific facts about the great age of the dinosaur. In the style of a vaudeville review, the show brings drama, dance, humor, and song together to educate and entertain children and adults alike. We hope you enjoy the show!
All the puppets are designed by Peter and Lois Bohovesky and made completely by hand in our shop in Rockland County, NY. Adding to the complexity (and fun) of the performance are all the different types
and styles of puppetry in the show. Lets take a look:
Trilobites, “Vegettes”, and the Baby Dinosaurs: Theses are hand puppets, known in the business as “Hand in Glove” puppets. The performer places his or her hand in the mouth of the character as if it were a glove. From here all the facial movements, as well as the functioning of the mouth, are controlled by the puppeteer. The other hand is free to manipulate the hands, feet, or the little baby dinosaur tails.
The Trees, Minnie Pearl and Clem Clam, and Willy Mammoth: Body puppets.
The puppeteer uses his or her own body to create the character from inside the puppet.
Willie Mammoth and the Clams both borrow “human” legs from their puppeteers (a little poetic license, puppet style).
Terry Pterodactyl: Terry is a very specialized rod puppet. She uses five rods, one for her head and body and two for each wing. This also means that three puppeteers work very hard in well rehearsed choreographic unison to create the illusion of flight.
Terry’s main rod not only controls her head, but her mouth as well through a string attached to the lower jaw.
Smiley Smiladon: A traditional Bunraku puppet. Bunraku is a traditional Japanese puppet art form in which all the puppets are life-sized and are operated from behind by a hooded puppeteer dressed in black. Though you can see the puppeteer, the very best Bunraku performers never detract from the puppet’s movements.
Tony and Trixie Triceratops: These backpack puppets are operated from the inside by two puppeteers coordinating their legwork in the song and dance of the triceratops.
The puppets are over 10 feet long and are supported on the inside by a skeleton of nylon rods. The performer in the front has his or her head in the protective shield, the “frill” of the dinosaur.
Bessie Apatosaurus: She is the largest puppet in the repertory of the Hudson Vagabond Puppets. The top of the shoulders is eight feet tall, so both puppeteers wear a special aluminum backpack that extends the height of the performer. They dance a splendid waltz by slipping their feet inside the puppet’s feet. Since most of her 22foot length is in the neck area, a third performer (dressed in black) carries the head and works the mouth.
Tyrannosaurus Rex: This 11-foot tall monster is actually performed by a single puppeteer! The head and torso are supported by an aluminum backpack modified to carry the towering creature. The puppeteer actually operates the head with two hands on a pair of handlebars as if he was riding a motorcycle. The feet and legs are manipulated by the performer’s own feet slipped into a secret pair of size 12 sneakers just behind Rex’s toenails.
For Young Learners… (From Pre-K through 1st Grade)
SOME THINGS TO DO
1. If you were a dinosaur, what kind would you like to be? Why? Draw a picture of yourself as a dinosaur. What is your name?
What do you eat? What do you do all day long?
2. Pick one of these scenes and draw a picture of it:
A. A Tyrannosaurus chasing another dinosaur for food.
B. Two dinosaurs fighting each other C. A dinosaur eating trees for dinner
3. Make up a new kind of dinosaur! Cut out a head, body, legs, and tail. Tape or glue them together to make a different dinosaur About the Dinosaurs… (From 2nd through 5th Grade)
ANATOMYApatosaurus/Brontosaurus was one of the largest land animals that ever existed. Apatosaurus lived during the late Jurassic Period, about 157-146 million years ago. The dinosaur Brontosaurus is now called Apatosaurus, one of a group of huge dinosaurs called Sauropods. This enormous plant-eater measured about 70-90 feet long and about 15 feet tall at the hips. It weighed roughly 33-38 tons. Its head was less than 2 feet long; it had a long skull and a very tiny brain. This plant-eater had a long neck (with 15 vertebrae), a long whip-like tail (about 50 ft long), a hollow backbone, peg-like teeth in the front of the jaws, and four massive, column-like legs. Its hind legs were larger than the front legs.
The biggest meat-eater at that time in North America (Allosaurus) was only 15 feet tall. Apatosaurus could have held its head at most 17 feet off the ground, which afforded Apatosaurus protection from predators, who couldn't attack its head or neck, and probably had more sense than to attack its gigantic, clawed feet or whiplike tail.
Strangely, Apatosaurus' nostrils were located on the top of its head. No one is sure what purpose this served. It used to be thought that this was a snorkel-like device for a water-dwelling animal, but this theory has been repudiated. Since Apatosaurus fossils have been found far from any water-dwelling fossils, it is now believed that Apatosaurus spent most of its time on land, far from large bodies of water or swamps.
WHY WAS APATOSAURUS' NECK SO LONG?Apatosaurus held its neck more-or-less horizontally (parallel to the ground). The long neck may have been used to "mow" wide swaths of vegetation or to poke over and into stands of trees to get foliage that was otherwise unavailable since Apatosaurus could not venture into forests because of its size. The long neck may have enabled this sauropod to eat soft horsetails, club mosses, and ferns. These soft-leaved plants live in wet areas, where sauropods couldn't venture, but perhaps the sauropod could stand on firm ground and browse in wetlands.
BEHAVIOR, LIFE SPANAlthough many sauropods may have traveled in herds, bonebeds of Apatosaurus fossils have not been found.
Apatosaurus may have been a solitary animal.
Sauropods' life spans may have been on the order of 100 years.
EGGS Apatosaurus, like other sauropods, hatched from enormous eggs up to a 1 foot wide. Sauropod eggs have been found in a linear pattern and not in nests; presumably the eggs were laid as the animal was walking. It is thought that sauropods did not take care of their eggs.
DIET This huge, extremely heavy reptile was an herbivore. It must have eaten a tre- (pronounced GAS-troh-liths) mendous amount of plant material each day to sustain itself. Apatosaurus must Gastroliths are stones that some have spent almost all of its time grazing. It had blunt pencil-like teeth, arrayed animals swallow and use to like a garden rake. These were useful for stripping and gathering foliage. Ac- help grind up tough plant matter cording to paleontologist Robert Bakker, Apatosaurus may have had thick, in their digestive system. Gasmoose-like lips that would help in gathering plant material. troliths are also called gizzard rocks. Apatosaurus swallowed Apatosaurus swallowed leaves and other vegetation whole, without chewing stones to use as gastroliths.
them, and had gastroliths (stomach stones) in its stomach to help digest this tough plant material.
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HOW DID WE MAKE THE PUPPET?
The part of Bessie Apatosaurus is performed by three puppeteers, one in front holding the head and working the mouth, and two puppeteers completely inside the puppet. Each of the performers on the inside is wearing a backpack to lift the weight up above their heads.
Their feet are inside Bessie’s huge dinosaur feet.
Bessie’s body is made of nylon rods wired together to make a frame. The frame is covered with muslin, foam, and then polyfill, or batting. The outside layer is colored spandex which is painted.
Bessie’s whip-like tail is made of a series of hinges surrounded by nylon hoops and covered with spandex.
APATOSAURUS LINKSThe American Museum of Natural History's page on Apatosaurus: www.amnh.org/Exhibition/Expedition/ Fossils/Specimens/apatosaurus.html The Carnegie Museum's (Pittsburgh, PA, USA) Apatosaurus mount: www.lhl.lib.mo.us/pubserv/hos/dino/ gil1936a.htm Sauropods at the Univ. of California Museum of Paleontology at Berkeley: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/ saurischia/sauropoda.html Triceratops Horridus Triceratops was a rhinoceros-like dinosaur. It walked on four sturdy legs and had three horns on its face along with a large bony plate projecting from the back of its skull (a frill). One short horn above its parrot-like beak and two longer horns (over 3 feet or 1 m long) above its eyes probably provided protection from predators. The horns were possibly used in mating rivalry and rituals. It had a large skull, up to 10 feet (3 m) long, one of the largest skulls of any land animal ever discovered. Its head was nearly one-third as long as its body. Triceratops hatched from eggs.
Triceratops was about 30 feet long (9 m), 10 feet tall (3 m), and weighed up to 6-12 tons. It had a short, pointed tail, a bulky body, column-like legs with hoof-like claws, and a bony neck frill rimmed with bony bumps. It had a parrot-like beak, many back teeth, and powerful jaws.
WHEN TRICERATOPS LIVEDTriceratops lived in the late Cretaceous period, about 72 to 65 million years ago, toward the end of the Mesozoic, the Age of Reptiles. It was among the last of the dinosaur species to evolve before the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction 65 million years ago. Among the contemporaries of Triceratops were Tyrannosaurus rex (which probably preyed upon Triceratops), Ankylosaurus (an armored herbivore), Corythosaurus (a crested dinosaur), and Dryptosaurus (a meat-eating dinosaur).
BEHAVIORTriceratops probably traveled in herds, like the other Ceratopsians. This hypothesis is supported by the finding of bone beds, large deposits of bones of the same species in an area.
When threatened by predators, Triceratops probably charged into its enemy like the modern-day rhinoceros does. This was probably a very effective defense.
REPRODUCTIONNo one knows how Triceratops reproduced or raised their young, except that they probably hatched from eggs.
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