«48 GEGRONDET VON ARNE EGGEBRECHT _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ PELIZAEUS-MUSEUM. HILDESHEIM _ Festschrift Arne Eggebrecht zum 65. Geburtstag am 12. Marz 2000 _ _ ...»
_ _ _ HILDESHEIMER AGYPTOLOGISCHE BEITRAGE---------i
HERAUSGEGEBEN VON BETTINA SCHMITZ
48 GEGRONDET VON ARNE EGGEBRECHT
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ PELIZAEUS-MUSEUM. HILDESHEIM _
Festschrift Arne Eggebrecht
zum 65. Geburtstag
am 12. Marz 2000
_ _ _ _ _ GERSTENBERG VERLAG· HILDESHEIM 2002 _
Bibliografische Information Der Deutschen Bibliothek
Die Deutsche Bibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet uber http://dnb.ddb.de abrufbar.
© 2002 Gerstenberg Verlag, Hildesheim Herstellung: Strauss Offsetdruck GmbH, 69509 Morlenbach Printed in Germany ISBN 3-8067-8140-0 IX Inhaltsverzeichnis
VORWORT DES HERAUSGEBERS VIIINHALTSVERZEICHNIS.•••.•••.•••.•••••••••••••••.•..••••....••••.....••••••.....•.•..•••••...•••....••.•...•.•..••••.••••••.. IX
SCHRIFTENVERZEICHNIS ARNE EGGEBRECHTzusammengestellt von Bettina Schmitz XI
HARTWIG ALTENMULLERSeschat,jrj und Sgm als Garanten einer glucklichen Regierungszeit 1
J URGEN VON BECKERATH
OLEG BERLEV - SVETLANA HODJASHThe Egyptian for 'Basileophorous Name / Surname' 15
Luc DELVAUX - CLAIRE DERRIKSTelle mere, telle fille. Un groupe egyptien de la 18e dynastie 19
ERIKA FEUCHTDie Darstellung einer Kuhantilope auf einem spiiten Negadetopf 27
ROLF GUNDLACHDie Gedenkskarabiien Amenophis' III.
Ihre Ideologie und historische Bedeutung 31
JOACHIM S. KARIGDie Sammlung Minutoli fur Berlin: Zufiille - Unfiille 47
ROSEMARIE KLEMM - DIETRICH D. KLEMM - ANDREAS MURRGeo-archiiologischer Survey im Wadi el-Hudi 53
INGEBORG MULLERPlan fur einen Tempel 67'
Among the major advances in the study of Egyptian, one of the most discussed has been the grammatical analysis of emphasis, whether by the verbal forms designated as emphasizing or the cleft sentence. The present brief study is a kind of analogy to "emphasis" or, otherwise stated, "relative prominence," in the area of statuary of the Old Kingdom, mainly in pair and multiple statues in terms of placement of the figures. For gender oriented scholars the term "dominance" is frequently used.
The subject has indeed received attention in Vandier's Manuel (1958) and in articles by Ursula Romer-Kohler (1985) and Regine Schulz (1995) cited below. Specialized studies have been devoted to the "pseudo-groups," to use Vandier's terminology, by Marianne Eaton-Krauss (1995) and to embracing pairs by Sylvia Falke (1987). There is also a related study by Edward Brovarski (1997). Yet it seems worthwhile to discuss the subject more specifically in this Festschrift for Arne Eggebrecht, the brilliant director of the Pelizaeus-Museum.
Egyptian statuary, unlike some elements of modern and Western statuary, serves several functions at the same time: mainly as a substitute for the individual or deity represented, as a participant in ritual (for example, the opening of the mouth ceremony), and as commemorative in various situations: an ex-voto in temple contexts, as the recipient of offerings in funerary contexts, and as substitutes for after-life support systems: the servant statues and statues of offering bearers.
Emphasis or prominence can be conveyed in a multiplicity of ways, in part by size, costliness of material, and the elusive matter of relative artistic merit. As indicated, a useful starting point is the subject of the "pair statue," usually that of a husband and wife, whether royal or non-royal. In the following discussion the term wife is generally used for the female statue, although at times the relationship is not thus specified.
A: Standing pairsAa: Normative Placement in Pair Statues
Aa 1. The "normative" placement is typified by the pair statue of Mycerinus and a queen, perhaps his mother, from Giza. Boston, MFA 11.1738. Vandier, La Statuaire, 73, pI. V, 3. See pI. 23, 1. The king (husband or son) is shown on the viewer's left with his wife or mother (the queen) on his left, the viewer's right. Stated otherwise, he is shown on the proper right of the other figure, which I take to be the position of prominence, a relative position, as frequently remarked, illustrated in many cultures. He is also depicted as the taller of the figures, represented wearing the royal nemes, and with his kilt crossed in the royal fashion, proper left over right (Simpson 1988; Fischer 1978, 84). The queen is emphasized to a lesser extent by the placement of her left foot forward, a stance almost always restricted to male statues, although exceptions occur for female statues (see Leipzig 3684 =Arnold 1999, 292-293, Krauspe 1997, Cat. 97, 47-48, pI. 37; Louvre E 6854, A 120 = Ziegler 1997, Cat. 28, 100-104; Berlin 12547, now considered a forgery = Fischer 1978, pI. 2; Cairo CCG 125 = Borchardt, pI. 28, with left foot of woman slightly advanced; other examples, cited by Fischer 1978, 84, n. 12 (include Junker, Giza II, pI. 13, Giza V, pI. 13, Hassan, Giza II, pIs. 65, 66). In this last case there were four standing statues, uninscribed, of a woman considered to be Mersyankh, the wife of the tomb owner. Her title is king's daughter. Two of the statues show the left foot advanced, while the other two show the feet together. Perhaps her prominence as a "king's daughter" explains the advanced foot, which Hassan rightly notes as unusual for female statues. Although there are exceptions to this placement, male o'n viewer's left and woman on viewer's right (see below), I would argue that this is the "normative" system.
Aa 2. Man on viewer's left with "wife" shorter on his left, viewer's right. Statue of Memy-Sabu, or Memy and wife Sabu. MMA 48.111. Vandier, La Statuaire, pI. XXVI, 1;
Fischer 1995, 84-85, pI. 27a; Arnold 1999, 73, fig. 62.
Aa 4. Man on viewer's left, wife on his left, viewer's right.
Large pair standing statue of Ka-nefer and wife. Louvre E 6854, A 120. Ziegler 1997, Cat. 28, 100-104.
Aa 5. Man on viewer's left, wife on his left, viewer's right.
Cairo CCG 151. Borchardt, pI. 34; Vandier, La Statuaire, pI. XXVII, 2.
So also Cairo CCG 6 = Borchardt, pI. 2; Cairo CCG 22 = Borchardt, pI. 6; Cairo CCG 158 =Borchardt, pI. 35; Louvre A 120, personal observation; Louvre E 15592, personal observation; Vienna 7444 =Arnold 1999, 98-99, fig. 87; Leipzig 3155 =Krauspe 1997, Cat. 105, 56-57, pI. 46; Leipzig 3684 = Krauspe 1997, Cat. 97, 47-48, pI. 36, 37;
Louvre E 15592, E 22769 =Ziegler 1997, Cat. 34, 123-127.
Ab: Non-normative placement in standing pair statues
In these cases, the placement I regard as "normative" is reversed, with the man on the viewer's right and his wife on the viewer's left. Although there are a number of examples of this position, they are considerably fewer than the designated normative scheme. In most cases the man is shown taller than his wife, and the wife is shown somewhat to the rear of her husband, again giving the man prominence.
Ab 1. Standing pair, man on viewer's right with wife on his right, viewer's left, with female child on viewer's left, next to the wife. Cairo CCG 125. Borchardt, pI. 28;
Vandier, La Statuaire, pI. XXVII, 1.
Ab 2. Standing pair, man on viewer's right, shorter wife on his right, viewer's left.
Hildesheim 2972. Martin-Pardey, CAA Hildesheim, Lieferung 4, 61.
Ab 3. Standing pair, man on viewer's right, shorter wife on his right, viewer's left.
Hildesheim 3186. Martin-Pardey, CAA Hildesheim, Lieferung 4, 122.
Ab 4. Standing pair, man on viewer's right, shorter wife on his right, viewer's left. Cairo CCG 89. Borchardt, pI. 20; Vandier, La Statuaire, pI. XXIV, 4.
Ab 5. Standing pair, large, wood, man on viewer's right, shorter wife on viewer's left.
Louvre N 2293. Ziegler 1997, Cat. 45, 164-167; Harvey 2001, Cat. B 10, 87, 390-391.
B: Seated pairs Ba: Normative Placement in Seated Pairs Here again, prominence/emphasis is accorded to the man by his placement on viewer's left.
Ba 1. Seated pair. Khaemhesit and family. Man seated on viewer's left, wife seated on his left, viewer's right, on smaller scale. Small figure of son (?), male figure in between.
Cairo JdE 44173. Assmann 1996,66, fig. 16.
Ba 2. Seated pair with children. Man seated on viewer's left with wife on his left, viewer's right. The celebrated statue of the dwarf Seneb and wife. Two children are shown in front of Seneb in the place where one would expect the owner's legs. Significantly, his son is shown on the viewer's left and his daughter on the viewer's right, echoing the placement of husband and wife. Cairo JdE 51281. Junker, Giza V, 107-116, fig. 29, pi. IX; Vandier, La Statuaire, 80, pi. XLVIII, 5; Tiradritti (ed.) 1999, 75; Terrace and Fischer 1970, 65-68.
Ba 3. Seated pair, man on viewer's left, wife on his left, viewer's right. Vienna 8019.
Jaro~-Deckert and Rogge, CAA Wien, Lieferung 15, 112-116; Vandier, La Statuaire, pi. XXVII, 3.
Ba 4. Seated pair, man on viewer's left, wife on his left, viewer's right. Male child on extreme left, next to man, female child on extreme right, next to wife echoing placement of main malelfemale figures. Giza 48. Vandier, La Statuaire, pi. XXVIII, 4.
Ba 5. Seated pair, man on viewer's left, wife on his left, viewer's right. Male child between pair. Curiously the head of the wife is considerably larger than that of her husband. Louvre N 45, A 44. Vandier, La Statuaire, pi. XVIII, 3; Ziegler 1997, Cat. 44, 160-163.
Ba 6. Seated pair, man on viewer's left, wife on his left, viewer's right. Although carved on different blocks, the original placement is carried out as exhibited. The famous statues of Rahotep and Nofret from Medum. Cairo CCG 3, 4. Tiradritti (ed.) 1999, 63.
Additional: Louvre E 14399 = Ziegler 1997, Cat. 27, 96-99; Louvre E 25368 = Ziegler 1997, Cat. 23, 82-86.
Bb: Non-normative placement in seated pairs Bb 1. Man on viewer's right, wife on his right, viewer's left. BM 14 . Vandier, La Statuaire, pi. XXVII, 4; Arnold 1999, No. 63, 74-75 with color photograph.
Bb 2. Man on viewer's right, wife on his right, viewer's left. Wife shorter and slightly to rear of man. Cairo CCG 100. Borchardt, pi. 22; Vandier, La Statuaire, pi. XXVIII, 2.
c: Pair statues, male seated, wife standing In this category, the male is emphasized by his being seated while the wife is shown standing on either his left or right. Even though seated, the man is "taller" than his wife.
Ca 1. Man seated on viewer's left, wife standing on his left, viewer's right. Demedj and wife Henutsen. MMA 51.37. Assmann 1996, 66, fig. 15; Arnold 1999, 100, fig. 88.
Ca 2. Man seated on viewer's left, wife standing on his left, viewer's right, with smaller son (his son) between the pair in front of father's seat, wife slightly shorter. Shepsi. Cairo CCG 22. Romer-Kohler 1989, pi. 33b.
Ca 3. Man seated on viewer's left, wife standing on his left, viewer's right. She is appreciably taller, as befits her standing position. Cairo CCG 123. Borchardt, pi. 27;
Vandier, La Statuaire, pi. XIX, 5..
Ca 4. Man seated on viewer's left, wife standing on his left, viewer's right. Bibliotheque nationale de France, Inventaire 53, no. 11. Illustrated in Ziegler 1997, 133.
Cb 1. Man seated on viewer's right, wife standing on his right, viewer's left. She is shorter, although standing, and, although seated, the man's head is higher than that of the wife. Louvre N 46, A 45. Ziegler 1997, Cat. 43, 155-159.
Cb 2. Man seated on viewer's right, wife, shorter, standing on his right, viewer's left.