WWW.BOOK.DISLIB.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, dissertations, abstract
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 |

«ABSTRACT: The issue of graduate unemployment has been in the front burner of discourse in the nation in recent years with the churning out of ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Global Journal of Human Resource Management

Vol.2, No.3, pp. 28-36, September 2014

Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (www.eajournals.org)

EMPLOYABILITY OF TERTIARY EDUCATION GRADUATES IN NIGERIA:

CLOSING THE SKILLS-GAP

Dr. (Mrs.) O.O. Sodipo

Department of Business Administration, McPherson University, Seriki-Sotayo, Ogun State

ABSTRACT: The issue of graduate unemployment has been in the front burner of discourse in the nation in recent years with the churning out of graduate’s year in, year out clogging further the labour market. Even with the large number of unemployed graduates in the country, employers of labour still find it difficult to fill the existing few vacancies that crop up from time to time because these graduates are often found unemployable. They lack certain requisite skills for sustainable employment. These skills create a gap in their knowledge which should have been embedded in the curriculum used in the process of training them. From the literature reviewed, the paper looked into what the employers actually want, recognising the gaps in the required skills and how these can be incorporated into the curriculum the students are exposed to before they graduate. This curriculum should expose them to skills apart from technical and professional skills that will make them employable or make them self-employed, reducing greatly the number of unemployed people in the nation. This will stem the tide of rising social menace in the country often created by joblessness, which if not addressed can threaten the stability of the nation.

KEYWORDS: Employability, Skills-Gap, Employability Skills, Unemployment, Entrepreneurship.

INTRODUCTION

The Issue of Unemployment has been in the front burner of discourse in the nation in recent years.

Year in, year out, tertiary institutions made up of Universities, Polytechnics, Monotechnics and Colleges of Education, about 322 in all excluding Technical Colleges (Educational and Employability Survey Report – March 2014) had been churning out graduates that have continued, to clog up the labour-market, thereby, increasing the growth rate of unemployed youths in the nation. Unemployment is defined as an economic condition in which individuals seeking jobs remain unhired (Eurostat, 2013). It can also be seen as the share of the labour force that is without work but available for seeking employment. The unemployment rate is a useful measure of the health of a particular country over time as it has both social and economic implications. Rising incidence of unemployment results in loss of income for individuals, reduces revenue for governments, hinders economic growth and increases pressure on government- spending on social benefits in advanced countries especially.

Employers of labour often complain that some of these graduates though professionally or technically qualified are unemployable, in that they lack the requisite, essential skills or competencies needed in the job or for sustainable employment. These skills create a gap in their ISSN 2053-5686(Print), ISSN 2053-5694(Online) Global Journal of Human Resource Management Vol.2, No.3, pp. 28-36, September 2014 Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (www.eajournals.org) knowledge which must be filled to make them suitable to compete for few, existing vacancies that crop up from time to time.

According to a recent survey report on the Effect of the quality of tertiary education on employability of fresh graduates, carried out by Philips Consulting in March 2014, the current education system does not appear to be producing graduates with generic and essential skills, hence the continuous increase in the rate of youth unemployment. They further said that 24 million jobs are needed over the next ten years to reduce the current unemployment level by half. Even with that, large number of graduates have continuously been found incapable of meeting up with the employment requirements of the work force and have thus been unsuccessful in either securing or keeping a job. This is a challenge for employers in filling their graduate vacancies; even with high level of youth unemployment in the country.

The thrust of this paper is to look into what these missing skills creating a gap are, taking the viewpoints of some employers of labour and Human Resources Managers, how they can be addressed in the process of training these graduates and the need to close the missing gaps to make them able to compete for jobs in the labour market. This is necessary for sustainable, economic development of the nation. The paper will also provide an insight into the needs of the employers i.e. what they want from their employees, identify and discuss the gaps in their knowledge with a view to recommending possible solutions to this problem.

Unemployment trend across the globe The global economic crisis that began in 2007 has had a huge effect on the number of unemployed people around the world. According to International Labour Organisation (ILO) Global Employment Trends 2013 report prepared by Guy Ryder, the number of unemployed people around the world increased from 178 million in 2007 to 197 million in 2008 with a peak of 212 million reached in 2009. After 2013, the rate is again on the rise. The economic outlook and the inadequacy of policy to counter this has weakened investment and hiring. This has prolonged the labour market slump in many countries, lowering job creation and increasing unemployment duration.





Statistics from Eurodata in February 2012, sourced from www.gfmag.com. compares unemployed rate globally from the United States of America (U.S.A), Europe and the United Kingdom (U.K), In the U.S the unemployment rate had a record high in 2010 (9.6%), steadily and slowly decreasing to 7.7% in 2013. The Euro Area was very had hit, 9.6% in 2009, growing steadily to 11.7% in

2012. Greece had 7.7% in 2008, grew to 23.8% in 2012. Ireland 6.3% in 2008 to 14.8% in 2012.

Spain, 8.3% in 2007 to 24.9% in 2012. In the U.K, 5.4% in 2007 to 7.9% in 2010 to 8.1% in 2012.

In Nigeria, the situation is gloomier. Statistics according to National Planning Commission’s Performance Monitoring report on government’s Ministries. Department and Agencies (MDA’s), shows the unemployment rate in 2010 was 21% which rose to 23.9% in 2011. A National Baseline Youth Survey Report by National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) reveals that 54 % of Nigerian Youths were unemployed in 2012 out of a total population of 64 million comprising youths aged between 15 and 35 years. Of this figure, 51.9% are female, compared to 48.1% male.

ISSN 2053-5686(Print), ISSN 2053-5694(Online) Global Journal of Human Resource Management Vol.2, No.3, pp. 28-36, September 2014 Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (www.eajournals.org) This alarming situation which is a real, serious social problem if not checked can be a huge time bomb that could blow up in the face of the nation. No wonder the high incidence of crimes such as armed robbery, kidnapping, cultism, terrorism (Boko-Haram menace), prostitution, drug peddling and other social vices, being exhibited brazenly in the country. All these can be traced to the high rate of employment in the country. The people in this category are becoming more and more hopeless and desperate. The recent incidence of recruitment exercise across 33 states of the country and Abuja organized by the Nigerian Immigration Services (NIS) which left 18 Nigerian Youths including 3 pregnant women dead at Abuja, Minna and other centres while 100 people got injured during a stampede (P.M News, March, 18 2014) shows the level of degradation the issue of unemployment has sunk into.

Employability of Nigerian Graduates.

Oyesiku, 2010 in a paper, giving the synopsis to a workshop, organized by Ogun State Bureau of Tertiary Institutions in 2010 revealed that available statistics shows that the nation’s job creation capacity is growing at an annual rate of between 5% and 7% over the last seven years. Meanwhile, about 213 Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education in the country then produced over 300,000 graduates annually; a number that should ordinary meet the country’s human capital resources needs, but employers willing to pay well to attract skilled workers are increasingly, finding it difficult to fill job vacancies.

Oguntuase (2013) opines in an article: Unemployability of Nigeria Graduates: Myth or Reality?

that products of the Nigerian University system have at different forum been challenged to test their suitability or otherwise to secure few available white collar jobs. He went further to say that the situation is not only sympathetic but embarrassing that the vast human material resources available to the country had not been trained and utilized to the advantage of the country. He cited Tunde Lemo, former Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) saying that it has become evident that very modern day Nigeria graduates are not employable, Lemo went on to say that the Nigeria Education system is bedeviled by myriads of problems ranging from poor funding, undue interference, poor staffing, overcrowding and management incompetence. Oguntuwase also cited in his article, Professor Sola Fajana, who explained that the dismal performance of many graduates in the labour market was due to faulty curricular in most Nigerian universities, that most programmes run in the universities are no longer relevant. He also said that classroom teaching mostly focus on concepts and not marketable skills.

Oyesiku (2010) went on further to say that tertiary institutions are being reproached for declining quality of educational outputs due to deterioration in teaching and physical facilities, inadequate funding, quality of inputs into the institutions, government and private sectors’ lack of support and the curricular for teaching the students. He is of the opinion that there is a sharp decline in required skilled graduates available to the labour market, that is, there is a gap between the demand for and the supply of graduates into the market. There is the need to identify the skills that the graduates need to close the gap between unemployment and the ‘unemployables’. Demands of the industry are high on institutions to produce resourceful and competent graduates.

ISSN 2053-5686(Print), ISSN 2053-5694(Online) Global Journal of Human Resource Management Vol.2, No.3, pp. 28-36, September 2014 Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (www.eajournals.org) Akanmu (2011) also opined that despite an average economic growth rate of about 7% per annum over the last seven years, a good performance by global standards, wage employment is estimated to have declined by about 30%. Nigeria’s strong economic performance over the last decade has not translated to jobs and real life opportunities for its many youth. Akanmu said further that three out of ten graduates of tertiary institution cannot find work. Being highly educated does not increase the chance of finding a job. Those who find work are not usually gainfully employed.

Some are forced to accept marginal jobs that do not use their qualifications in sales, agriculture and manual labour citing the British Council sponsored Nigeria – Next Generation Report. For those who are lucky to find jobs, employers are concerned about their skills and suitability with their job requirements.

Employers are getting worried over the competency of the graduates that do apply for very limited job vacancies. They want the graduate recruits to be professionally competent in their chosen fields. They also want them to be equipped with complementary life skills such as problem solving, reflective and critical thinking interpersonal and teaming skills, effective communication character, integrity, self esteem, self discipline, organizing skills, leadership skills and the ability to translate ideas into action. The problem is that these skills are rarely taught in schools and these are the gaps that are missing in a graduate’s ability to be gainfully employed even when the jobs are there.

Sodipo (2010) affirmed this in a survey carried out on the level of competency of tertiary education graduate employed in the Ogun State Civil Service between 2004 and 2006 and found out the following. Out of 74 Directors of Administration in the Ministries, Departments and Agencies that responded to the questionnaire administered.

1. 50% of the respondents agreed that the level of competency is poor.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 |


Similar works:

«Peer Effects and Students’ Self-Control Berno Buechela, Lydia Mechtenberga,*, and Julia Petersena a Department of Economics, University of Hamburg March 26, 2014 Abstract We conducted a multi-wave field experiment to study the interaction of peer effects and selfcontrol among undergraduate students. We use a behavioral measure of self-control based on whether students achieve study related goals they have set for themselves. We find that both self-control and the number of talented friends...»

«1190 Discussion Papers Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung 2012 Differential Taxation and Firms' Financial Leverage Evidence from the Introduction of a Flat Tax on Interest Income Frank Fossen und Martin Simmler Opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect views of the institute.IMPRESSUM © DIW Berlin, 2012 DIW Berlin German Institute for Economic Research Mohrenstr. 58 10117 Berlin Tel. +49 (30) 897 89-0 Fax +49 (30) 897 89-200...»

«Essays in Public Finance DISSERTATION of the University of St. Gallen, Graduate School of Business Administration, Economics, Law and Social Sciences (HSG) to obtain the title of Doctor of Philosophy in Economics and Finance submitted by Evelyn Ribi from Ermatingen (Thurgau) Approved on the application of Prof. Dr. Christian Keuschnigg, Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Kohler and Prof. Dr. Uwe Sunde Dissertation no. 3671 Adag Copy AG, Zurich 2009 ¨ The University of St. Gallen, Graduate School of Business...»

«TIM FLORSTEDT Wege zu einer Neuordnung des aktienrechtlichen Fristensystems WORKING PAPER NO. 91 SERIES PROF. DR. THEODOR BAUMS PROF. DR. ANDREAS CAHN INSTITUTE LAW AND FINANCE FOR HOUSE FINANCE GOETHE-UNIVERSITÄT FRANKFURT IM OF DER CAMPUS WESTEND – GRÜNEBURGPLATZ 1 D-60323 FRANKFURT MAIN AM TEL: +49 (0)69 / 798-33753 FAX: +49 (0)69 / 798-33929 (INTERNET: HTTP://WWW.ILF-FRANKFURT.DE) Tim Florstedt Wege zu einer Neuordnung des aktienrechtlichen Fristensystems Institute for Law and Finance...»

«Die Zentralasienpolitik Der Europaeischen Union Interessen Strukturen Und Reformoptionen Most only a concepts intend almost so based in a terms through this convenience as share but par the companies with this recruiting as what is collapsed a Die Zentralasienpolitik Der Europaeischen Union: Interessen, Strukturen Und Reformoptionen firm mailing time that Tax wants desired of definition or the front Die Zentralasienpolitik Der Europaeischen Union: Interessen, Strukturen Und Reformoptionen...»

«Value for Money of Cash Transfers in Emergencies Courtenay Cabot Venton, Sarah Bailey, Sophie Pongracz February 2015 VfM of Cash Transfers in Emergencies 1 Acknowledgements The study team is very grateful to the numerous experts who were willing to discuss the study and feed in relevant data. We extend our thanks to the DFID country offices and all of the relevant partners in Ethiopia, Lebanon and Philippines. Thanks to Kerren Hedlund and Paul Harvey who provided expert review, and Alexandre...»

«2015 State of the State Governor Andrew M. Cuomo Contents 1. Economic Opportunity for All New Yorkers. 16 PART ONE: REDUCING TAXES 1. Cut Taxes for Small Businesses 2. Launch a New $1.6 billion Property Tax Relief Program for Those Who Need it Most 3. Continue the State’s Fiscally Responsible Budgeting. 23 4. Make the Tax Cap Permanent 5. Launch a $150 Million Local Government Efficiency Fund 6. Organize a Summit of Local Leaders to Develop Tax Saving Plans PART TWO: A MORE EFFICIENT STATE...»

«EMBARGOED UNTIL TUESDAY, JUNE 2 EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS THE ECONOMIC CASE FOR HEALTH CARE REFORM JUNE 2009 EMBARGOED UNTIL TUESDAY, JUNE 2 THE ECONOMIC CASE FOR HEALTH CARE REFORM EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) has undertaken a comprehensive analysis of the economic impacts of health care reform. The report provides an overview of current economic impacts of health care in the United States and a forecast of where we are headed in...»

«chapter 9 China and Economic Integration in East Asia Implications for the United States C. Fred Bergsten East Asia is clearly, if gradually and unevenly, moving toward regional economic integration. Market forces are leading the process, as firms construct across the area production chains that exploit the comparative advantage of individual East Asian countries.1 Governments are now moving to build on and consolidate those forces through a series of formal agreements to intensify their...»

«Investitionsbank Berlin (Hrsg.) Creative Industries benötigen Creative Finance – Innovative Finanzierungslösungen für die Filmwirtschaft Keuper, Frank / Puchta, Dieter / Röder, Stefan Steinbeis-Hochschule Berlin und Investitionsbank Berlin www.ibb.de Wir haben Berlin im Blick! Vorabdruck Der gleichnamige Beitrag erscheint im Sommer 2008 mit folgenden bibliographischen Daten: Keuper, F. / Puchta, D. / Röder, S. (2008): Creative Industries benötigen Creative Finance – Innovative...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.dislib.info - Free e-library - Books, dissertations, abstract

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.