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«MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE, EXTRADITION AND RECOVERY OF PROCEEDS OF CORRUPTION IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC Frameworks and Practices in 27 Asian and Pacific ...»

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ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific

MUTUAL LEGAL

ASSISTANCE,

EXTRADITION

AND RECOVERY

OF PROCEEDS

OF CORRUPTION

IN ASIA AND

THE PACIFIC

Frameworks and Practices in 27 Asian and Pacific Jurisdictions

Thematic Review – Final Report Australia – Bangladesh – Cambodia – P.R. China – Cook Islands – Fiji Islands Hong Kong, China – India – Indonesia – Japan – Republic of Kazakhstan Republic of Korea – Kyrgyz Republic – Malaysia – Macao, China – Mongolia Nepal – Pakistan – Palau – Papua New Guinea – Philippines – Samoa – Singapore Sri Lanka – Thailand – Vanuatu – Vietnam Asian Development Bank Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Publications of the ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific:

– Curbing Corruption in Public Procurement in Asia and the Pacific: Progress and Challenges in 25 Countries. Manila: ADB/OECD, 2006.

– Denying Safe Haven to the Corrupt and the Proceeds Corruption: Enhancing AsiaPacific Cooperation on Mutual Legal Assistance, Extradition, and Return of the Proceeds of Corruption. Manila: ADB/OECD, 2006.

– Anti-Corruption Policies in Asia and the Pacific: Progress in Legal and Institutional Reform in 25 Countries. Manila: ADB/OECD, 2006.

– Knowledge – Commitment – Action against Corruption in Asia and the Pacific.

Proceedings of the 5th Regional Anti-Corruption Conference held in Beijing, People‘s Republic of China, in September 2005. Manila: ADB/OECD, 2006.

– Anti-Corruption Action Plan for Asia and the Pacific with country endorsing statements.

Manila: ADB/OECD (2002; reprinted 2005).

– Curbing Corruption in Tsunami Relief Operations. Manila: ADB/OECD/TI, 2005 (available in English, Bahasa, Sinhala, and Tamil languages).

– Controlling Corruption in Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the 4th Regional AntiCorruption Conference held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in December 2003. Manila:

ADB/OECD, 2005.

– Anti-Corruption Policies in Asia and the Pacific: The Legal and Institutional Frameworks.

Manila: ADB/OECD, 2004.

– Effective Prosecution of Corruption. Manila: ADB/OECD, 2003.

– Taking Action against Corruption in Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the 3rd Regional Anti-Corruption Conference held in Tokyo, Japan, in 2001. Manila: ADB/OECD, 2002.

– Progress in the Fight against Corruption in Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the 2nd Regional Anti-Corruption Conference held in Seoul, Korea, in 2000. Manila: ADB/OECD, 2001.

– Combating Corruption in Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the Manila workshop held in 1999. Manila: ADB/OECD, 2000.

These documents are available for download from the Initiative‘s Web site at http://www.oecd.org/corruption/asiapacific/publications 2007 Asian Development Bank, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development All rights reserved ISBN 978 92 64 04370 This publication was prepared by the Secretariat of the ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific, composed of Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) staff. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in it do not necessarily represent the views of ADB or those of its member governments or of the OECD or its member countries. ADB and OECD do not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accept no responsibility whatsoever for any consequences of their use. The term ―country‖ does not imply any judgment by the ADB or the OECD as to the legal or other status of any territorial entity.

Contents List of Tables

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Foreword

Executive Summary

Part 1 Mutual Legal Assistance, Extradition and Recovery of Proceeds of Corruption in the Asia-Pacific Region—a comparative overview

Introduction

I. The Legal Basis for Rendering Extradition and MLA

A. Treaty-based Cooperation

1. Bilateral Treaties

2. Multilateral Treaties

a. United Nations Convention against Corruption

b. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions

c. Southeast Asian Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Treaty

d. United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime

e. Commonwealth of Independent States Conventions on Legal Assistance and Legal Relationship in Civil, Family and Criminal Matters

B. Non-treaty Based Arrangements

1. Cooperation Based on Domestic Law

2. Cooperation among Commonwealth Countries

3. Cooperation among Member Countries of the Pacific Islands Forum

4. Judicial Assistance and Letters Rogatory

C. MLA in Extradition Treaties and Legislation

II. Legal Limitations and Preconditions to Cooperation

A. Extradition of Nationals

ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific Mutual Legal Assistance, Extradition and Recovery of Proceeds of Corruption B. Extradition and MLA Offenses—Severity and Dual Criminality............... 39





1. Severity

2. Dual Criminality

C. Reciprocity

D. Evidentiary Tests

E. Specialty and Use Limitation

F. Grounds for Denying Cooperation

1. Essential and Public Interests

2. Political Offenses

3. Double Jeopardy/On-going Proceedings and Investigations in the Requested State

4. Offense Committed Wholly or Partly in the Requested State........... 55

5. Nature and Severity of Punishment

6. Bank Secrecy

III. Procedures and Measures to Facilitate Extradition and MLA

A. Preparing, Transmitting and Executing Requests

1. Preparation of Outgoing Requests

2. Language of the Request and Translation

3. Formal Transmission of Requests for Cooperation and Evidence..... 63 a. Transmission through the Diplomatic Channel

b. Transmission through Central Authorities

c. Transmission between Law Enforcement Agencies

4. Urgent Procedures for Extradition and MLA

a. Provisional Arrest as an Emergency Measure for Extradition....... 67 b. Urgent MLA Requests

5. Approval and Execution of Incoming Requests

6. Participation of Foreign Authorities in Executing Requests................ 70

7. Use of Liaison Personnel

B. Procedural Measures for Enhancing Extradition and MLA

1. Simplified Extradition through Endorsement of Warrants and Consent Extradition

2. Appeals

3. Time Requirements

C. Alternatives to Formal MLA and Extradition

IV. Recovery of Proceeds of Corruption in Criminal Proceedings

A. Legal Basis for Assistance

B. Procedures

1. Tracing and Identification of Assets

2. Freezing and Seizure

3. Confiscation to the Requested State

ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific

Contents 5

4. Repatriation to the Requesting State

Conclusions and Recommendations

Part 2 Frameworks and Practices for Mutual Legal Assistance, Extradition and Recovery of Proceeds in 27 Asian and Pacific Jurisdictions

Australia

Bangladesh

Cambodia

P.R. China

Cook Islands

Fiji Islands

Hong Kong, China

India

Indonesia

Japan

Kazakhstan

Korea

Kyrgyz Republic

Macao, China

Malaysia

Mongolia

Nepal

Pakistan

Palau

Papua New Guinea

Philippines

Samoa

Singapore

Sri Lanka

Thailand

Vanuatu

Vietnam

Annexes

A. Matrix on Extradition Arrangements between Members of the ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative

ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific Mutual Legal Assistance, Extradition and Recovery of Proceeds of Corruption B. Matrix on MLA Arrangements between Members of the ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative

C. Matrix on Extradition Arrangements between Members of the ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative and Parties to the OECD Convention

D. Matrix on MLA Arrangements between Members of the ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative and Parties to the OECD Convention

ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia-Pacific Secretariat Contacts.323 ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific List of Tables Table 1: Selected Members of the Initiative with Legislation Allowing Extradition and MLA without a Treaty

Table 2: Selected Extradition Legislation and Treaties in Asia-Pacific Which Permit Search, Seizure and Transmission of Evidence and Property Derived from Corruption and Related Offenses

Table 3: Selected Legislation and Treaties which Deny Extradition of Nationals

Table 4: Selected Extradition Treaties and Legislation with a Severity Criterion

Table 5: Selected Extradition Legislation and Treaties with a Conduct-Based Definition of Dual Criminality

Table 6: Dual Criminality in Selected MLA Arrangements

Table 7: Selected Legislation which Requires Reciprocity for MLA without a Treaty

Table 8: Evidentiary Tests in Selected Extradition Legislation and Treaties

Table 9: Selected Extradition Legislation and Treaties which Require Specialty

Table 10: Selected MLA Legislation and Treaties which Impose Use Limitation for Incoming Requests

Table 11: Selected MLA Legislation and Treaties in which Essential Interests Are Considered

Table 12: Selected Extradition Legislation and Treaties which Allow Denial of Cooperation for Political Offenses

Table 13: Selected MLA Legislation and Treaties which Allow Denial of Cooperation for Political Offenses

Table 14: Selected Extradition Legislation and Treaties which Exclude the Political Offenses Exception Due to Obligations under Multilateral Instruments

Table 15: Selected Legislation and Treaties which Deny Extradition on Grounds of Double Jeopardy and/or Concurrent Proceedings

Table 16: Selected Legislation and Treaties which Deny MLA on Grounds of Double Jeopardy

ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific Mutual Legal Assistance, Extradition and Recovery of Proceeds of Corruption Table 17: Selected Legislation and Treaties which Allow MLA to Be Denied or Delayed Because of On-going Proceedings in the Requested State

Table 18: Selected Legislation and Treaties which May Deny Extradition for an Offense Committed Wholly or Partly in the Requested State

Table 19: Selected Legislation and Treaties which May Deny Extradition for an Offense over which the Requested State Has Jurisdiction to Prosecute

Table 20: Selected Legislation and Treaties which Deny Extradition Because of the Death Penalty (Unless the Requesting State Provides Assurances)

Table 21: Selected Legislation and Treaties which Deny Extradition Because of Torture or Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Punishment

Table 22: Selected Legislation and Treaties which Deny MLA in Relation to an Offense Punishable by Death

Table 23: Selected Members of the Initiative that Accept Incoming MLA Requests in English (Subject to Treaty)

Table 24: Selected Extradition and MLA Legislation and Treaties which Require Communication through Diplomatic Channels (Except Possibly in Urgent Cases)

Table 25: Selected MLA Legislation and Treaties which Allow Direct Transmission of Requests between Central Authorities

Table 26: Information Available on the Internet (See Part 2 for Web Site Addresses)

Table 27: Selected Extradition Legislation and Treaties which Provide for Provisional Arrests

Table 28: Selected MLA Legislation and Treaties with Urgent Procedures

Table 29: Selected MLA Legislation and Treaties which Allow Requesting State to Participate in Proceedings to Take Evidence

Table 30: Selected Legislation and Treaties that Provide for Consent Extraditions



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