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«TSHEPISO JONATHAN SETOKOE Mini-Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of Technology: Tourism and ...»

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Mini-Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree

Master of Technology: Tourism and Hospitality Management

in the Faculty of Business

at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology

Supervisor: Prof K. Swart Cape Town Date submitted: August 2015 CPUT copyright information The dissertation/thesis may not be published either in part (in scholarly, scientific or technical journals), or as a whole (as a monograph), unless permission has been obtained from the University


I, Tshepiso Jonathan Setokoe, declare that the contents of this dissertation/thesis represent my own unaided work, and that the dissertation/thesis has not previously been submitted for academic examination towards any qualification. Furthermore, it represents my own opinions and not necessarily those of the Cape Peninsula University of Technology.

01 August 2015 Signed Date ii


Sport tourism and mega-events have grown rapidly in size in recent years. Governments have taken a keen interest in bidding for the hosting of mega-events, as part of their overall development plan. This research examines ways in which the residents of a suburb in Pretoria perceived the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup. By identifying the different perceptions within the community, it was possible to improve the understanding of both the tangible, and the intangible, impacts of mega-events, and how they affected the quality of life of the local residents at the time of the study.

The aim of the study was to investigate the levels of awareness, as well as the perceptions, and the attitudes, of residents living in a particular suburb that was situated within a 2km radius of the stadium, using a stratified random sampling method. In response to the administration of a questionnaire, 326 successfully completed questionnaires were obtained. The findings revealed that the residents had high levels of awareness regarding the event. The most outstanding perceived benefits of the event were that it provided the community with entertainment, as well as increasing the spending on public facilities, boosting the sense of community pride, and showcasing the area in a positive light, whereas the most negative overall impacts appeared to be the minimal direct economic benefits of the event accruing to the community involved. The residents’ major concerns included, but were not limited to, inappropriate behaviour, and an increase in the crime rate, as well as in the amount of traffic congestion. Excessive noise was also a key concern.

The study encourages the government, and the event organisers, to increase active community involvement, and participation, in the planning, and in the management, of the event, so as to address, and to help alleviate, concerns regarding the perceived negative impacts of the event, as well as of future events.

–  –  –

I wish to thank:

 My ancestors, for their spiritual guidance.

 Prof. Kamilla Swart, without whom this study would not have been so enlightening.

Thank you for saving me from my personal misgivings that I had it in me to successfully complete such a wide-ranging study.

 My family, without whom nothing meaningful happens. Nomthandazo and Onalalenna, Daddy did this for you.

 My friends in the Cape, Gaselebelo, Matshomane, and the crew, thank you for your support.

 My friends in research, Dion, Alex, Hillary, Asentewaa, and Tembi, I hope that we will be able to keep in touch, and to soldier on together into the unknown.

 Vusumzi Mlanjana, Phumeza Mxinwa, Yonela Ntongana, and Nosibusiso Mragana, living with you turned me from a stranger into a friend. Let’s keep umrhosho going.

–  –  –

This work is dedicated to my late aunt and surrogate mother, Maboniseng Francina Theletsane. Although receiving this degree in your absence will feel somewhat incomplete, the birth of Onalenna Lebone Setokoe will bring comfort in your absence.

–  –  –

Residents living in close proximity:

Residents of the Sunnyside suburb of Pretoria living within a 2km area of the Loftus Versfeld Stadium.

FIFA Confederations Cup:

The FIFA Confederations Cup is an eight-team international tournament that is held every four years as a dress rehearsal for nations hosting a World Cup in the following year. The hosting of the former Cup gives an opportunity to use many of the World Cup facilities in advance. It also provides stiffer competition for the host nation than might otherwise be available only in the form of friendlies that it plays because it could avoid going through the World Cup qualifying process (Robinson, 2009).

FIFA World Cup:

The international tournament contested by the men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). It is played every four years, with each team, apart from the host nation, having to qualify to play in the tournament. The current format of the World Cup finals involves 32 teams playing in eight groups, with two from each group progressing to the knockout stages of the competition (Coggin, 2009?).


Events that usually generate long-term profound impacts, both positive and negative, on the host communities concerned (Kim, Gursoy & Lee, 2006:87).

Large-scale cultural (including commercial and sporting) events that have a dramatic character, mass popular appeal, and international significance (Horne, 2007:82).


Process by which a person selects, organises, and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world (George, 2005:400).

–  –  –


A person who lives somewhere on a long-term basis (Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 2004:1223).


The means by which subjects, or study units, from the target population are included in the research project (Jennings, 2001:136).

Social exchange theory:

The assumption that individuals are likely to participate in an exchange if they are likely to gain benefits without incurring unacceptable costs (Gursoy & Kendall, 2006:606).

Sport tourism:

Travel away from home to play sport, to watch sport, or to visit a sport attraction, with the travel involved including both competitive, and non-competitive, activities (Hudson, 2003:xvii).

Urban regeneration:

Rehabilitation of impoverished urban neighbourhoods, by means of large-scale renovation, or reconstruction, of housing and public works (Farlex, n.d.).

–  –  –

FIFA Fédération Internationale de Football Association GCSI Government Communication and Information Systems GDP gross domestic product HSRC Human Sciences Research Council IRRIDEX Irritation Index Model RQ research question SMEs small medium enterprises SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SRB Single Regeneration Budget UNWTO United Nations World Tourism Organisation WTTC World Travel and Tourism Council

–  –  –


1.1 Introduction South Africa has actively fared much better in comparison with its African counterparts with regard to promoting itself as a major international sport events destination. According to Cornelissen (2005:138), a range of economic, political and ideological motivations underlie the country’s need to host such events. She further asserts that the sport mega-events play a significant role in the country’s ambitions to reach its tourism development goals on an international level.

Having made numerous bids to host mega-sporting events, South Africa successfully won the right to host the 2010 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup.

Hosting the Rugby and Cricket World Cups in 1995 and 2003 respectively, assisted in creating an image, and an identity, reflective of a new post-apartheid South African society (Kotze, 2006:291). According to the Government Communication and Information System (South Africa. Government Communication and Information System, 2009), the South African government’s objective in hosting a mega-event such as the 2010 FIFA World Cup coincides with its priorities of economic growth and development. The hosting of the 2010 World Cup will be a catalyst for faster economic growth and the achievement of the developmental goals.

Pillay (2008) further indicates that in social terms, urban rejuvenation and infrastructure upgrades were seen as key goals, together with the development of world-class sporting and training facilities associated with the legacy left behind by the hosting of mega-events While the benefits cited above are generally put forward, the policy to host mega-events is often driven by the associated economic aspects, attracting the attention of academics, with economic impact studies being an obligatory part of the proceedings (Bull & Lovell, 2007:230).

The two researchers further assert that, while studies are more inclined to focus on what people spend, very little is known about the communities’ general perceptions of such events. The assumption is normally that, because of the large numbers of spectators who tend to be attracted by such events, they draw widespread support. However, little is known about the views and perceptions of the residents concerned. Inskeep (1991:140) asserts that the main aim for any government in developing tourism, is to protect and enhance the environment while meeting the host community’s needs, and improving the quality of life of all people concerned. Fredline (2004:229) also notes the importance of establishing mechanisms to measure and monitor the impact of the events on the quality of life of the local residents, so that informed decisions can be made regarding events that are publicly funded.

Despite the increasing number of studies that focus on residents’ perceptions towards the hosting of mega-events in particular, and towards tourism development in general, Carmichael (2000:601) states that there is still only limited understanding of residents’ responses to the impact of tourism, and of under what conditions residents react to such an impact. A lack of understanding is partially a result of diversity in the communities in which tourism occurs, which is largely due to differences in the socio-economic circumstances existing within social areas. Sometimes, the differences concerned are reinforced by cultural and ethnic divisions.

Kim, Gursoy and Lee (2006:87) describe mega-events as being one-time events that usually generate long-term profound impacts, both positive and negative, on the host communities.

According to Deccio and Baloglu (2002:47), despite the negative impacts communities compete against each other to host these mega-events because of the expected benefits for the community and local businesses. Mega-events are likely to focus a great deal of attention on the host community and generate positive economic benefits.

The events can have a positive impact on the host area that is not limited to tourism opportunities, as well as to an enhanced image for the area, and prospects for a better quality of life for the host community involved (Kim et al., 2006:89).

When tourism development occurs in diverse communities, it is not surprising that a wide variation in perceptions of tourism is likely to be present. This can be reflected in the manner in which a person thinks, feels and behaves. However, an individual’s attachment to a community is an existing social variables that can have an influence on residents’ evaluation of the positive and negative effects of any development (Amuquandoh, 2010:235). This is given further credence by Carmichael’s (2000:603) assertion that perceptions are structured along three dimensions: (1) cognitive (beliefs, knowledge); (2) affective (likes and dislikes);

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