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«Synthesis report Justice December 2012 This report was financed by and prepared for the use of the European Commission, Directorate-General for ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

The impact of the

economic crisis

on the situation

of women and men

and on gender equality

policies

Synthesis report

Justice

December 2012

This report was financed by and prepared for the use of the European Commission, Directorate-General for

Justice; Unit D2 ‘Equality between men and women’, in the framework of a contract managed by Fondazione

Giacomo Brodolini (FGB) in partnership with Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale (IRS). It does not necessarily reflect

This report was financed by and prepared for the use of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Justice; Unit D2 financed by and prepared for opinion the position of the European Commission or of D2 Directorate-General for Justice, nor is any theframework of aEuropean managed by the the framework forBrodolini (FGB) the the use of or Commission, Directorate-General Justice; Unit men and women', in Fondazione Giacomo a contract managed by the Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini (FGB) in 'Equality between contract of in n men and women', in the partnership does not necessarily Ricerca the opinion or It does ofuse European reflect the opinion or position of the European with Istituto per la reflect responsible position notthe that might be made of the information contained in this Sociale (IRS). for the necessarily person acting on their behalf stituto per la Ricerca Sociale (IRS). It Commission or of is anyDirectorate-General for Justice and nor isthe use that acting on their behalf responsible for the use that the person acting on their behalf responsible for any person f the Directorate-General for Justice and nor publication. of f the information contained in this publication. the information contained in this publication.

might be made     FGB- Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini IRS- Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale Via Barberini 50 - 00187 Rome - Italy Via XX Settembre 24 - 20123 Milano - Italy Tel +39 0644249625 - Fax +39 06 44249565

–  –  –

by and prepared for the use of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Justice; Unit D2 nd women', in the framework of a contract managed by the Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini (FGB) in la Ricerca Sociale (IRS). It does not necessarily reflect the opinion or position of the European rectorate-General for Justice and nor is any person acting on their behalf responsible for the use that rmation contained in this publication.

–  –  –

The national experts (+ indicates a non-EU country) Ingrid Mairhuber (Austria) Ulrike Papouschek (Liechtenstein+) Danièle Meulders (Belgium) Ruta Braziene (Lithuania) Iskra Beleva (Bulgaria) Robert Plasman (Luxembourg) Željko Mrnjavac (Croatia+) Ana Androsik (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia+) Chrystalla Ellina (Cyprus) Frances Camilleri-Cassar (Malta) Alena Křížková (Czech Republic) Inés Hardoy (Norway+ ) Karen Sjørup (Denmark) Ania Plomien (Poland) Marre Karu (Estonia) Virgínia Ferreira (Portugal) Hanna Sutela (Finland) Lucian - Liviu Albu (Romania) Rachel Silvera (France) Magdalena Piscová and Miloslav Bahna (the Slovak Republic) Friederike Maier and Andrea-Hilla Carl (Germany) Aleksandra Kanjuo-Mrřela (Slovenia) Maria Karamessini (Greece) Elvira González Gago (Spain) Maria Frey (Hungary) Anita Nyberg (Sweden) Sigurdur Johannesson (Iceland+) Janneke Plantenga and Chantal Remery (The Netherlands) Ursula Barry (Ireland) Semsa Ozar (Turkey+) Francesca Bettio and Alina Verashchagina (Italy) Colette Fagan and Helen Norman (United Kingdom) Olga Rastrigina (Latvia) Expert Group on Gender Equality and Social Inclusion, Health and Long-Term Care (EGGSI) The national experts (+ indicates non-EU countries) Bettina Haidinger (Austria) Nathalie Wuiame (Belgium) Maria Slaveva Prohaska (Bulgaria) Siniša Zrinšřak (Croatia+) Susana Pavlou (Cyprus) Alena Křížková (Czech Republic) Tine Rostgaard (Denmark) Reelika Leetmaa and Marre Karu (Estonia) Johanna Lammi-Taskula (Finland) Anne Eydoux (France) Alexandra Scheele (Germany) Maria Thanopoulou and Johanna Tsiganou (Greece) Beáta Nagy (Hungary) Sigurbjörg Sigurgeirsdóttir (Iceland+) Maria Hegarty and Mary Murphy (Ireland) Flavia Pesce (Italy) Anna Zasova (Latvia) Ulrike Papouschek (Liechtenstein+) Ruta Braziene (Lithuania) Robert Plasman (Luxembourg) Jana Lozanoska (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia+) Frances Camilleri-Cassar (Malta) Peter Donders (Netherlands) Ira Malmberg-Heimonen (Norway+) Irena Topinska (Poland) Teresa Sarmento (Portugal) Livia Popescu (Romania) Barbora Holubová (the Slovak Republic) Masa Filipovic (Slovenia) Elvira González Gago (Spain) Anita Nyberg (Sweden) Yildiz Ecevit (Turkey+) Claire Annesley (United Kingdom)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to express their gratitude to Angela Cipollone who gave valuable contributions to the drafting of the present report.

–  –  –

List of Figures Figure 1.1.

Employment and GDP 2003Q1-2012Q1. EU27............ 66 Figure 1.2.

Employment and inactivity rates in EU27, quarterly values and trends 2003Q1 – 2012Q1............................. 70 Figure 1.3.

Quarterly unemployment rates, 2003Q2-2012Q1, by sex.... 70 Figure 1.4.

Unemployment rates 2008Q2-2012Q1, by country and sex... 71 Figure 1.5.





Employment and unemployment in the USA and in Europe 2000-2011, by sex..................................... 72 Figure 1.6 -to-trough and trough-to-2012Q1 variations in employment, by country and sex................................ 73 Figure 1.7. Discouraged workers, 2008-11, by country and sex......... 80 Figure 1.8.

Involuntary part-time, 2007-2011...................... 81 Figure 1.9. Temporary employment. Peak-to-trough change and current values............................................... 83 Figure 1.10.

Determinants of in-work poverty, EU level, survey years 2007-2009............................................ 84 Figure 1.11. Subjective evaluation of change in working conditions during last three years, 2008-2010............................... 87 Figure 1.12. Age profile of employment change. Peak-to-trough and trough-to-2012Q1 variations in the employment rate............. 90 Figure 1.13. Education profile of employment change.

Peak-to-trough and trough-to-2012Q1 variations in the employment rate... 91 Figure 1.14. Nationality profile of employment change.

Peak-to-trough and trough-to-2012Q1 variations in the employment rate... 92 Figure 2.1.

Change in the composition of the gender pay gap.

Belgium, 2007-2009......................................... 100 Figure 3.1. Household expenditure by consumption purpose (selected COICOP items), % change 2008-2009 (volume)............ 108 Figure 3.2. Difference between total work of women and men (20-74 years) in the EU...................................... 112 Figure 4.1.

Anticipated changes in employment levels in more than 50% of governmental agencies and ministries (2010)............ 121 Figure 4.2.

Announced Consolidation plans as % of GDP............ 124 Figure 4.3. Short-term fiscal impact of the crisis. General government debt in ratio to GDP............................... 125 Figure 4.4.

(%) of persons reporting that poverty has strongly increased in the last 12 months in their country................... 132 Figure 5.1.

Dependency rate by sex, before and after the crisis began... 153 Figure 6.1. Intersections between the Europe 2020 indicators, by sex... 168

List of Tables

Table 1.1.

Peaks and troughs in the employment rate (all, aged 15-64)... 68 Table 1.2. Employment vulnerability in the downturn................ 76 Table 1.3.

Couples by partner’s income role, 2007-2009.............. 78 Table 2.1. Gender pay gap in hourly earnings, unadjusted 2002-2010... 100 Table 2.2. Gender pay gap, unadjusted, hourly earnings 2007-2011.... 103 Table 3.1. Yearly change in paid work, unpaid work, and housework: Italy, 1988-2009............................... 111

Table 3.2. Change in paid and unpaid work by sex (2003-2010):

Spain.................................................... 112 Table 4.1.

Codifying some stylized facts -fiscal consolidation experience in the six country studies............................ 135 Table 5.1. Evolution of the percentage of people at risk of poverty or social exclusion, by sex.................................... 146 Table 5.2.

Evolution of the at-risk-of-poverty rate, by sex............ 148 Table 5.3. Evolution of the at-risk-of-poverty rate anchored at a fixed moment in time (2005), by sex............................ 149 Table 5.4. Evolution of the at-risk-of-poverty rate before social transfers, by sex............................................ 150 Table 6.1. Evolution of the severe material deprivation rate, by sex..... 169 Table 6.2.

Evolution of the severe material deprivation rate, by educational attainment and sex.............................. 170 Table 6.3. Evolution of the severe material deprivation rate among single persons, by sex....................................... 171 Table 7.1.

Crisis-specific measures in National Reforms Programme 2011 in EU 27.................................... 205 List of acronyms CIG Cassa Integrazione Guadagni (Wages Guarantee Fund)

–  –  –

exeCutive summary Purpose Europe is experiencing a financial and economic crisis. This began with the ‘credit crunch’ in the financial services sector and evolved as a sovereign debt crisis. Fiscal consolidation and austerity measures have been deployed in response to the crisis to reduce public deficits and debt. This crisis is still unfolding so that the analysis and findings of this report must remain a work in progress.

This report aims to assess the impact of this crisis on the situation of women and men in Europe and on gender equality policies. This is important as economic crises are deeply gendered. Past experience cannot provide sufficient insight into the gender impact of this crisis as the position of women has changed considerably since the last major recession. This crisis offers opportunities for radical change, including a potential to advance equality for women and men. However, the crisis also poses challenges where gender equality may be seen as an issue only for the good times.

This report is a product of the EGGE and the EGGSI expert networks of the European Commission. It covers twenty seven Member States, the EEA-EFTA countries and three candidate countries: Turkey, Croatia and FYROM. The core reference period for analysis of the labour market impact is the (nearly) four years between the second quarter of 2008 - when the crisis technically started for the EU as a whole1 - and the first quarter of 2012 - the latest quarter for which Eurostat data is available at the time of writing. Analysis of the social impact extends over the period between 2005 and 2010.

Four Main Conclusions Four main conclusions can be drawn from this report. The first conclusion is that there has been a levelling down of gender gaps in employment, unemployment, wages and poverty over the crisis. This however does not reflect progress in gender equality as it is based on See European Commission, 2010e: Table 1. A recessionary episode technically occurs when the GDP records quarter-on-quarter negative variations for two consecutive quarters.

Executive Summary lower rates of employment, higher rates of unemployment and reduced earnings for both men and women.



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