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«Why Interculturalisation? A Response to the Internationalisation of Higher Education in the Global Knowledge Economy Xiaoping Jiang SensePublishers ...»

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Why Interculturalisation?

A Response to the Internationalisation

of Higher Education in the Global

Knowledge Economy

Xiaoping Jiang


Why Interculturalisation?



Volume 28

Series Editors

Michael A. Peters

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA J. Freeman-Moir University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand Editorial Board Michael Apple, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA Miriam David, Department of Education, Keele University, UK Cushla Kapitzke, The University of Queensland, Elizabeth Kelly, DePaul University, USA Simon Marginson, Monash University, Australia Mark Olssen, University of Surre, UK Fazal Rizvi, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA Linda Smith, University of Auckland, New Zealand Susan Robinson, University of Bristol, UK Scope This series maps the emergent field of educational futures. It will commission books on the futures of education in relation to the question of globalisation and knowledge economy. It seeks authors who can demonstrate their understanding of discourses of the knowledge and learning economies. It aspires to build a consistent approach to educational futures in terms of traditional methods, including scenario planning and foresight, as well as imaginative narratives, and it will examine examples of futures research in education, pedagogical experiments, new utopian thinking, and educational policy futures with a strong accent on actual policies and examples.

Why Interculturalisation?

A Response to the Internationalisation of Higher Education in the Global Knowledge Economy Xiaoping Jiang Guangzhou University, China



A C.I.P. record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.

ISBN 978-90-8790-664-1 (paperback) ISBN 978-90-8790-665-8 (hardback) ISBN 978-90-8790-666-5 (e-book) Published by: Sense Publishers, P.O. Box 21858, 3001 AW Rotterdam, The Netherlands http://www.sensepublishers.com Printed on acid-free paper All Rights Reserved © 2008 Sense Publishers No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work.





Writing this book has been a demanding research task. I am very much indebted to the many people who have gone out of their way to help me with this book.

First of all, I wish to express my heartfelt gratitude to Prof. Michael Peters, Prof.

Roger Peddie and Prof. Weijia Kuang who supplied their wisdom and support. I also would particularly like to thank my close friend, Dr Josta van Rij-Heyligers for all the work she has done in massaging this book into shape. She has never failed to provide me with her wise professional assistance. No words can describe my deep appreciation to her for what she has done for me.

Finally, I extend my genuine gratitude to my family members for their love, endurance and trust they have shown me with respect to completing this book. My sincere thanks goes to Robbie Dai, my special family member who is always there for me, heart and soul, supporting and helping me in whatever way he can.

There are many other friends who have offered their gracious support and precious time to bring this book to fruition. I would like to take this opportunity to show my deep indebtedness for what you all have done for me. Thank you.


ADB the Asia Development Bank AELM APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation ASEAN the Association of Southeast Asian Nations AT Agency Theory AUCC the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada AVCC the Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee CCP the Chinese Communist Party CEOs Chief Executive Officers CERI Center for Educational Research and Innovation, OECD, France CPC CC the CPC Central Committee CRIs Crown Research Institutes CUAP the (NZ) Committee on University Academic Programmes EAEC the East Asian Economic Caucus ERO the (NZ) Education Review Office EU the European Union FDI foreign direct investment FFP foreign fee paying FRST Foundation for Research, Science and Technology FSI the US Foreign Service Institute GATS the General Agreement on Trade in Services GATT the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GCERD Guidelines for China’s Educational Reform and Development GDP Gross Domestic Product HCT Human Capital Theory HE higher education HEEP Higher Education Exchange Programme HEIs higher education institutions ICT information and communication technologies IMF the International Monetary Fund IPP intellectual property protection ISAs Ideological State Apparatuses IT information technology ITAG (NZ) Information Technology Advisory Group MFAT the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade MFN most favoured nation MNCs multinational corporations MoE1 Ministry of Education MoRST (NZ) Ministry of Research, Science and Technology MOUs Memoranda of Understanding NBR the National Business Review NGOs non-governmental organizations


NIE New Institutional Economics NPM New Public Management NUFFI the Netherlands Organisation for International Co-operation in Higher Education NZ New Zealand NZBRT the New Zealand Business Roundtable NZIS New Zealand Immigration Service NZMD the New Zealand Market Development Board NZQA the New Zealand Qualifications Authority NZTC the New Zealand Teachers Council NZVCC the New Zealand Vice-Chancellors’ Committee OECD the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OEE the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation PBE the Pacific Basin Economic Council PCT Public Choice Theory PRT Property Rights Theory RSAs Repressive State Apparatuses SALs Structural Adjustment Loans SEC the (Chinese) State Education Commission SM structuralist Marxism SOEs State Owned Enterprises TCE Transaction Cost Economics TEAC the (NZ) Tertiary Education Advisory Commission TEC the (NZ) Tertiary Education Commission TEIs the Tertiary Education Institutions The UK the United Kingdom The US the United States of America TINA There is no alternative TNCs transnational corporations TRIMS Trade-Related Investment Measures UN CPC the United Nations Provisional Central Product Classification UN the United Nations UNDP the United Nations Development Programme UNESCO the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UoA the University of Auckland USSR the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics WB the World Bank WIPO the World Intellectual Property Organisation WTO the World Trade Organization x


Professor Michael Peters In the age of globalisation internationalisation is one of the dominant strategic discourses that rule the university. We might consider it a set of processes in search of a theory and/or concept of internationalism yet to be articulated for it most often figures as a discourse of strategy with an emphasis on ‘how to’ questions rather than a reflective discourse examining political ends or purposes. While it is true to say that as a set of processes ‘internationalisation’ has changed over time, today it takes place in a way that reflects changes in the political economy of higher education and the global economy brought about strongly by a form of neoliberalism. There are different forms of internationalisation that differ according to colonial past, geopolitics, and global position so we should talk of ‘internationalisations’ (in the plural) and yet the neoliberal juggernaut best represented by the Australian export model of Higher Education now dominates.

The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) has effectively turned higher education into a commodity in the international marketplace and now nations vie for study abroad students to boost their country’s income. A major impact of globalisation on higher education is the advent of the view of education as a service, a commodity that is not only produced and consumed domestically but also traded internationally. The GATS is a set of multilateral, legally enforceable rules governing international trade in services. Negotiated under the aegis of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), it came into force in 1995. The GATS covers twelve different sectors of services, including transportation, recreation, construction, education among others. As a sector, education is further subdivided into primary, secondary, higher, adult education and other services as well. The agreement distinguishes four modes of supply and applies these to the trade of all services, including (1) Cross-border supply, (2) Consumption abroad, (3) Commercial presence, (4) Presence of natural persons. As the International Association of Universities2 these modes apply to education covering respectively (1) program mobility (distance education, online education, courses franchising…), (2) student mobility, (3) institution mobility (branch campus) and (4) academic mobility (professors and researchers working temporarily abroad).

According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), roughly 2 million higher education students are being educated outside their home countries. Projections from the British Council and IDP Education Australia suggest that this number may double by 2015 and double again by 2025. By 2025, almost 8 million students will be educated internationally. The greatest percentage and most growth until recently have been in Anglo-American neoliberal capitalist economies of the United States (US), the United Kingdom (UK), Australia, Canada and New Zealand. As the UNESCO Institute for Statistics indicates (UIS/FS/05/02 updated: November 2005) – Out of every ten tertiary students studying abroad, five are Asians, three are Europeans and one is African.


– Half of all foreign students study in Europe and one-quarter in the United States.

– Three countries host almost half of the world’s foreign students (United States, United Kingdom and Germany). Add the next three highest hosting countries (France, Australia and Japan), and these six countries serve two-thirds of the world’s foreign students.

– While 25% of all foreign students are in the United States, they represent only 4% of the country’s tertiary students. In the United Kingdom and in Germany, foreign students make up one in ten total tertiary enrolments, in Australia almost one in six.

– South America is the least common destination for foreign students (hosting only 0.6% of the global foreign student population), followed by Africa (1.4%).

These are astonishing figures although it is the case that since 2003/04 there has been a decline in demand for international education affecting the major Anglophone countries, particularly in the undergraduate sector. These declines reflect increased global security concerns inhibiting travel by students and providers as well as increased competition, particularly from new players such as Singapore and China.

International education has rapidly become an area of interest for an increasing number of countries who recognise the benefits of international education and now identify target markets and establish national level agencies.3 An international market of more than US $30 billion in 1998 represented approximately 3% of global services (OECD, 2004). In the US gross export accounted for $11493 million in 2001; net exports in the same year amounted to $9115 million.4 In 2003–04, education services were worth AU$5.9 billion to the Australian economy, a 13 per cent increase on 2002–03. Certainly international higher education proved big business. Yet during the 1980s and after universities in the US opened over twenty branch campuses in Japan, and Australia did the same in South East Asia, there have been very few success stories and most of the branch campuses have since closed.

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